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IN THIS VOLUME


General

1964;():V001T01A002. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-2.
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Some of the problems encountered in combustion-system design are discussed with particular attention to combustor discharge-temperature patterns. The results of extensive laboratory and field tests that culminated in improved temperature patterns are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A003. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-3.
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The general problem of flexibility of supports is investigated analytically. It is shown that geometrically symmetric supports are also elastically symmetric, leading to reduced rotor vibration problems. The 90-deg, two-armed support also is shown to be elastically symmetric. Small departures from the 90-deg spacing, however, are shown to lead to serious lack of elastic symmetry. The simple pedestal is shown to be incapable of being designed with elastic symmetry. The symmetric support is shown to induce fewer blade-excitation frequencies in turbomachines.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A004. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-4.
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This paper presents a 37/42 Mw compound open-cycle-type TG3000 gas turbine, designed by the author’s company, which is one of the most powerful gas turbines ever built and in industrial operation. The first unit started industrial operation in September 1962 in Italy at Chivasso Power Plant; three more units, destined for a power plant in Belgrade, are being bench-tested or under assembly. The paper illustrates the considerations which led the author’s company to choose the power and the cycle arrangement of the gas turbine, the main construction and design features of the single components as well as the initial operating results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A006. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-6.
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Aviation jet engine is being adapted for use in the British electrical generating system. Already gas turbines, rated at 15–20 Mw and 3-Mw, based on the Bristol Siddeley “Olympus” and “Proteus” turboprop engines, respectively, have been installed and 51 orders have been placed totaling 1400 Mw for early completion. A substantial number of 17 1/2-Mw sets are in prospect during the next 2 years.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A007. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-7.
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Essential features of peak-load and stand-by gas-turbine plants are rapid starting, small personnel requirements and reliable fast-acting control systems. In designing a gas turbine of 40–50 Mw output, consideration has been given to fulfilling these requirements, thus many special features have been adopted including an air starting device and an electrohydraulic control system for fully automatic starting and operation. Studies have also been made of the effects of rapid load changes on the temperature gradients in the high temperature parts.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A008. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-8.
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The major design features of the FT4A gas-turbine engine for marine and industrial applications are described, the development-test history of the engine is reviewed, and the field experience with this and similar engine concepts is discussed. In addition, the particular characteristics of the FT4A power plant which make the latter attractive for various applications are mentioned.

Topics: Engines , Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A009. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-9.
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The design and development of two related gas turbines, both intended in the first instance as marine auxiliary generators, is described. General matters concerning gas turbines in marine applicatons are touched upon, such as thermal efficiency and design life, and the relevance of these matters to these particular engines discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A010. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-10.
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The paper presents the experience gained by Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited, over the first five years of operation at sea of aviation gas turbines adapted for use in various marine installations. Most of the experience accumulated during this period has involved the “Proteus” engine and the first part of the paper is devoted to covering this aspect, commenting upon matters such as engine life, failures, current development and future applications. The shorter experience gained applying engines to hovercraft is then dealt with, and finally reference is made to the current activities at Bristol Siddeley concerning the use of the “Olympus” engine for marine purposes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A011. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-11.
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The results are presented from a numerical finite-difference method of calculation for the transient behavior of porous media when subjected to a step change in fluid temperature considering the case where the longitudinal thermal heat conduction cannot be neglected. These results, given in tabular and graphical form, provide a useful means for evaluating the heat-transfer data obtained from the transient testing of compact heat-exchanger surfaces.

Topics: Heat conduction
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A012. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-12.
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This paper presents a unique application of two 14,200-hp gas turbines and their associated waste heat-recovery boilers in a refinery modernization program. It summarizes economics, design, and operating experience. Special emphasis is placed on three unusual features: (1) oversized starting turbines used as helpers; (2) control of two drivers with one governor; and (3) use of gas-turbine exhaust as combustion air, backed up by a forced-draft fan running at full speed against a closed damper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A013. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-13.
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The military and industry have long recognized the potential of the regenerative-cycle gas turbine. Only recently has the “state-of-the-art” in regenerators and other lightweight turbine-engine components made it feasible to apply regeneration to aircraft engines. In applying regeneration to the aircraft gas turbine certain unique engine-design problems are encountered, such as: (a) Configuration and arrangement of lightweight, high effectiveness regenerator; (b) combustion system with side entry air; (c) turbine cooling at high inlet temperatures; (d) compressor operating flexibility; (e) control system for optimum engine response and operational flexibility; (f) configuration and arrangement of propeller and reduction gear.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A014. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-14.
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Applications of gas turbine-generator sets in marine service are discussed with emphasis on service requirements and limitations of equipment. Characteristics of the gas turbine-generator set are compared to alternative equipment. Examples of installations which are in service are cited to illustrate the method in which gas turbine-generator sets are utilized to best advantage in marine applications. A summary of experience and suggestions for future improvements of such applications is presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A015. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-15.
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Improved engine and aircraft performance has been achieved in the latest generation of aircraft engines, the fanjets, by the application of the by-pass principle, owing to its superior propulsive efficiency as compared to its basic counterpart — the turbojet. This paper demonstrates that in the moderate subsonic flight regime, interesting performance gains are obtainable by using by-pass ratios appreciably larger than in today’s fanjet engines. Considerations for the selection of an optimum by-pass ratio and design approaches to the high by-pass fan are discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A016. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-16.
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The means of using total energy from a gas-turbine engine in various refrigeration systems are reviewed. Combinations of heating and cooling or electric power generation and cooling are discussed as well as combined centrifugal and absorption refrigeration systems. The economics of gas-burning turbine engines are investigated and shown to be attractive in these applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A017. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-17.
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The high by-pass ratio tip-turbine driven lift and lift cruise fan offers the unique arrangement of a single type propulsion system fulfilling the many requirements for a VTOL application. This simple, compact, lightweight system offers high efficiency (low SFC) with the high static thrust at take-off required for VTOL and STOL operation. The lift cruise fan is a logical outgrowth of the tip-turbine lift fan technology backed by over 600 hr of testing since 1959. The significant test problem accomplishments for the cruise fan are presented as well as a representative VTOL transport-type application.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A018. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-18.
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The gas turbine-regenerator design being offered by the authors’ companies is a result of fifteen years of activity in this field. Design modifications as well as surface configuration changes have been made to keep pace with the dictates of field experiences. These changes are considered with special emphasis on field performance and problem areas that have resulted in a redesign of the heat exchanger.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A019. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-19.
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After completion of the development of an impulse-type, axial-flow expander, the design of a reaction-type, radial-expander turbine was undertaken. Particular emphasis was placed on turbine efficiency and reliability. Angularly adjustable nozzles control the flow. Two sizes were developed covering a range from 5 to 150 cfm exhaust volume Peak efficiencies reached are as high as 92 percent. Consequently 87 percent are being guaranteed. Load absorbers are radial-flow compressors. Compressor efficiencies as high as 89 percent have been measured. A unique cartridge design permits exchange of rotor, bearing and seals in a few hours.

Topics: Turbines , Radial flow
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A020. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-20.
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This paper discusses gas-turbine installations in the Burns Brick Company plant in Macon, Ga., and the Cattle Marketers, Inc., plant near St. Cloud, Fla. In the Burns plant the turbine is used for power generation with exhaust heat used for drying brick. In the Cattle Marketers plant the turbine is used for power generation with exhaust heat used for drying grass to make hay. Turbine fuel heat usage of 91.7 and 84.6 percent are obtained in the plants. Short-term pay-out periods and attractive profit on investment are promised by these installations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A021. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-21.
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The largest two-shaft gas turbine in the United States has been operated in combined cycle service at the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company Horseshoe Lake Station since May 1963. The same design unit has been operated in peaking and stand-by service at Public Service Electric and Gas (Essex, N. J.) station since December 1963. The O.G & E. unit has a NEMA rating of 25 Mw base load. The PSEG unit has a NEMA peaking rating of 29 Mw. The paper describes the design features of this unit and a method of testing the high-pressure set and variable second-stage nozzle under full-load conditions without actually loading the load turbine.

Topics: Design , Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A022. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-22.
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Of growing significance is the conversion of natural gas into electricity, on-site, through the use of direct-fired gas turbines. Most installations will best be served by applying the “modular concept”; i.e., a group of turbine-alternator modules which can be added or taken from the line to meet the variation in load profile throughout a 24-hr day. Many of these must operate on a completely automatic, unattended basis. The purpose of the paper is to outline the various automatic controls required, describe some of the major factors in the design of these controls, and to provide a better understanding of the completely automatic, modular on-site gas-turbine energy system.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A023. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-23.
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This paper presents the results of an analytical study of turbomachinery requirements and configurations for Brayton-cycle space-power systems. Basic turbomachinery requirements are defined and typical effects of such system design parameters as power, temperature, pressure and working fluid on turbomachinery geometry and performance are explored. Typical turbomachinery configurations are then presented for systems with power outputs of 10, 100 and 1000 kw.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A024. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-24.
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At the 1962 ASME meeting in Houston, Allison submitted a paper describing the possibilities of industrializing the T56 aircraft engine. Since that time, Allison has modified the engine for gas burning and is operating one as a prime mover for a 2000-kw generator at the Indianapolis Plant. In addition, two additional units are to be installed in the gas-transmisson field driving centrifugal gas compressors. This paper gives a description of the units and a status report on the installation and operation. Photographs of the installation and performance data, as necessary to complete the report, are included.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A025. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-25.
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An illustration is given of the considerations necessary in the application of a regenerative gas turbine to a total-energy system involving electric power, heating and air conditioning. Performance of the turbine is compared to a nonregenerative type. Requirements of a modern downtown office building based upon actual operating records for the year 1962 are matched against the turbine’s capabilities for supplying the system.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1964;():V001T01A026. doi:10.1115/64-GTP-26.
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This paper reviews the modification, installation and utilization of an aircraft turboshaft engine in a hydrofoil ship. A detailed description of engine performance, maintenance, and corrosion protection is included.

Topics: Engines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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