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Numerical Analysis of the Primary Breakup Under High-Altitude Relight Conditions Applying the Embedded DNS Approach to a Generic Prefilming Airblast Atomizer

[+] Author Affiliations
Benjamin Sauer, Nikolaos Spyrou, Amsini Sadiki, Johannes Janicka

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

Paper No. GT2013-94446, pp. V01AT04A033; 10 pages
doi:10.1115/GT2013-94446
From:
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 1A: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions
  • San Antonio, Texas, USA, June 3–7, 2013
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5510-2
  • Copyright © 2013 by ASME

abstract

The primary breakup under high-altitude relight conditions is investigated in this study where ambient pressure is as low as 0.4 bar and air, fuel and engine parts are as cold as 265 K. The primary breakup is crucial for the fuel atomization. As of today, the phenomena dictating the primary breakup are not fully understood. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of liquid breakup under realistic conditions and geometries are hardly possible. The embedded DNS (eDNS) approach represents a reliable numerical tool to fill this gap.

The concept consists of three steps: a geometry simplification, the generation of realistic boundary conditions for the DNS and the DNS of the breakup region. The realistic annular airblast atomizer geometry is simplified to a Y-shaped channel representing a planar geometry. Inside this domain the eDNS is located. The eDNS domain requires the generation of boundary conditions. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the entire Y-shaped channel and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (RANS) of the liquid wall film are performed prior to the DNS. All parameters are stored transiently on all virtual DNS planes. These variables are then mapped to the DNS. Thus, high-quality boundary conditions are generated. The Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method is used to solve for the two-phase flow.

The results provide a qualitative insight into the primary breakup under realistic high-altitude relight conditions. Instantaneous snapshots in time illustrate the behavior of the liquid wall film along the prefilmer lip and illustrate the breakup process. It is seen that a slight variation of the surface tension force has a strong impact on the appearance of the primary breakup. Case 1 with the surface tension corresponding to kerosene at 293 K indicates large flow structures that are separated from the liquid sheet. By lowering the surface tension related to kerosene at 363 K, the breakup is dominated by numerous small structures and droplets.

This study proves the applicability of the eDNS concept for investigating breakup processes as the transient nature of the phase interface behavior can be captured. At this time, the authors only present a qualitative insight which can be explained by the lack of quantitative data. The approach offers the potential of simulating realistic annular highly-swirled airblast atomizer geometries under realistic conditions.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME

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