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CFD Modeling of Skull Formation in a Blast Furnace Hearth

[+] Author Affiliations
Dong Fu, Yan Chen, Chenn Q. Zhou

Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN

Yongfu Zhao, Louis W. Lherbier, Jr.

United States Steel Corporation, Munhall, PA

John G. Grindey

United States Steel Corporation, Gary, IN

Paper No. HT2012-58394, pp. 1051-1058; 8 pages
  • ASME 2012 Heat Transfer Summer Conference collocated with the ASME 2012 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and the ASME 2012 10th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels
  • Volume 2: Heat Transfer Enhancement for Practical Applications; Fire and Combustion; Multi-Phase Systems; Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment; Low Temperature Heat Transfer; Computational Heat Transfer
  • Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, USA, July 8–12, 2012
  • Conference Sponsors: Heat Transfer Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4478-6
  • Copyright © 2012 by ASME


The formation of the protective layer of solidified metal (skull) is critical to the blast furnace hearth operation. Enhancement of the formation of the skull layer could extend the hearth lining life and blast furnace campaign. In this paper, a CFD model that consists of solidification, flow, heat transfer has been utilized to simulate the skull formation phenomena in a blast furnace hearth. The heat transfer characteristics and temperature distribution of the skull and refractory brick has been investigated. The simulated results are comparable with operating experience of U. S. Steel blast furnaces. Parametric study includes lining property and structure, cooling water temperature and flow rate, hot metal (HM) temperature and the production rate, as well as cast practice.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME



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