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Flow Visualization in Boiling Water Flows Leading Up to Departure From Nucleate Boiling in an Electrically-Heated Duct

[+] Author Affiliations
Helene A. Krenitsky, Evan T. Hurlburt, Larry B. Fore, Paul T. McKeown, Richard B. Williams

Bettis Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA

Paper No. HT2009-88515, pp. 481-490; 10 pages
doi:10.1115/HT2009-88515
From:
  • ASME 2009 Heat Transfer Summer Conference collocated with the InterPACK09 and 3rd Energy Sustainability Conferences
  • Volume 3: Combustion, Fire and Reacting Flow; Heat Transfer in Multiphase Systems; Heat Transfer in Transport Phenomena in Manufacturing and Materials Processing; Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology; Low Temperature Heat Transfer; Environmental Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Education; Visualization of Heat Transfer
  • San Francisco, California, USA, July 19–23, 2009
  • Conference Sponsors: Heat Transfer Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4358-1 | eISBN: 978-0-7918-3851-8
  • Copyright © 2009 by ASME

abstract

A fundamental departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) flow visualization experiment was designed to obtain a better understanding of flow boiling by visually capturing the mechanisms leading up to and including DNB for subcooled vertical flow boiling. At the critical heat flux (CHF) the heat transfer coefficient between the wall and fluid is greatly reduced, entering an inefficient heat transfer region that can cause a rapid increase in wall temperature. Most of the visual data on DNB in the open literature comes from experiments conducted with refrigerants or with water at relatively low pressure. One goal of this test was to capture high-quality photographs leading up to DNB for water at higher pressures, higher mass fluxes, and larger inlet subcooling than most of the data in the open literature. The fundamental DNB experiment consisted of three different run stages: incipient boiling, subcooled boiling, and CHF runs, which were intended to capture the behavior leading up to and including a departure from nucleate boiling crisis. At high heat flux conditions, the steep temperature and refractive-index gradients in the water near the wall act like lenses and bend the light away from the wall, which is the region of interest for discerning the DNB mechanism. By frosting the inner surface of the window on the light source side, the nearly collimated light was diffused as it entered the test section and enabled better visualization near the wall region. A high speed camera was used in testing. A typical run consisted of a 2 second image data set, with a resolution of 512 by 160 pixels, at 10,000 frames per second. Three excursive CHF runs were achieved, the last of which melted the test section. The trigger function on the camera captured images from before and after the power trip for the last CHF run. A trend can be seen of an increasing two-phase friction factor with power that begins to increase more rapidly at test section powers greater than 64.5kW. The 1995 Groenevel, et al. (1996) look-up table proved to be a good estimate of the heat flux at DNB.

Copyright © 2009 by ASME

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