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A Study on the Performance and Emissions Characteristics of a DI Compression Ignition Engine Operated With LPG and DTBP Blending Fuels

[+] Author Affiliations
Hoin Kang

Daelim University College, Anyang, Republic of Korea

Jerald A. Caton

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

Seangwock Lee

Kookmin University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Seokhwan Lee, Seungmook Oh

Korea Institutes of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

Paper No. ICEF2011-60214, pp. 295-306; 12 pages
  • ASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference
  • ASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference
  • Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, October 2–5, 2011
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4442-7
  • Copyright © 2011 by ASME


LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) has been widely used as an alternative fuel for gasoline and diesel vehicles in light of clean fuel and diversity of energy resources. But conventional LPG vehicles using carburetors or MPI fuel injection systems can’t satisfy the emissions regulations and CO2 targets of the future. Therefore, it is essential to develop LPG engines of spark ignition or compression ignition type such that LPG fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber under high pressure. A compression ignition engine using LPG is the ideal engine with many advantages of fuel economy, heat efficiency and low CO2 , even though it is difficult to develop due to the unique properties of LPG. This paper reports on numerical and experimental studies related to LPG fuel for a compression ignition engine. The numerical analysis is conducted to study the combustion chamber shape with CATIA and to analyze the spray and fluid behaviors with FLUENT for diesel and LPG (n-butane 100%) fuels. In one experimental study, a constant volume chamber is used to observe the spray formation for the chamber pressure 0 to 3MPa and to analyze the flame process, P-V diagram, heat release rate and emissions through the combustion of LPG fuel with the cetane additive DTBP (Di-tert-butyl peroxide) 5 to 15 wt% at 25MPa of fuel injection pressure. In engine bench tests, experiments were performed to find the optimum injection timing, lambda, COV and emissions for the LPG fuel with the cetane additive DTBP 5 to 15 wt% at 25MPa fuel injection pressure and 1500 rpm. The penetration distance of LPG (n-butane 100%) was shorter than that of diesel fuel and LPG was sensitive to the chamber pressure. The ignition delay was in inverse proportion to the ambient pressure linearly. In the engine bench tests, the optimum injection timing of the test engine to the LPG fuel with DTBP 15 wt% was about BTDC 12° CA at all loads and 1500 rpm. An increasing of DTBP blending ratio caused the promotion of flame and fast burn and this lead to reduce HC and CO emissions, on the other hand, to increase NOx and CO2 emissions.

Copyright © 2011 by ASME



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