0

Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Applied Tests of Design Skills: Divergent Thinking Data Analysis and Reliability Studies

[+] Author Affiliations
Jami J. Shah, Roger E. Millsap

Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

Jay Woodward, S. M. Smith

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

Paper No. DETC2010-28886, pp. 367-380; 14 pages
doi:10.1115/DETC2010-28886
From:
  • ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
  • Volume 5: 22nd International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology; Special Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise
  • Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 15–18, 2010
  • Conference Sponsors: Design Engineering Division and Computers in Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4413-7 | eISBN: 978-0-7918-3881-5
  • Copyright © 2010 by ASME

abstract

A number of cognitive skills relevant to conceptual design were identified. They include Divergent Thinking, Visual Thinking, Spatial Reasoning, Qualitative Reasoning and Problem Formulation. A battery of standardized tests have been developed for these skills. We have previously reported on the contents and rationale for divergent thinking and visual thinking tests. This paper focuses on data collection and detailed statistical analysis of one test, namely the divergent thinking test. This particular test has been given to over 500 engineering students and a smaller number of practicing engineers. It is designed to evaluate four direct measures (fluency, flexibility, originality, quality) and four indirect measures (abstractability, afixability, detailability, decomplexability). The eight questions on the test overlap in some measures and the responses can be used to evaluate several measures independently (e.g., fluency and originality can be evaluated separately from the same idea set). The data on the 23 measured variables were factor analyzed using both exploratory and confirmatory procedures. Two variables were dropped from these exploratory analyses for reasons explained in the paper. For the remaining 21 variables, a four-factor solution with correlated (oblique) factors was deemed the best available solution after examining solutions with more factors. Five of the 21 variables did not load meaningfully on any of the four factors. These indirect measures did not appear to correlate strongly either among themselves, or with the other direct measures. The remaining 16 variables loaded on four factors as follows: The four factors correspond to the different measures belonging to each of the four questions. In other words, the different fluency, flexibility, or originality variables did not form factors limited to these forms of creative thinking. Instead the analyses showed factors associated with the questions themselves (with the exception of questions corresponding to indirect measures). The above four-factor structure was then taken into a confirmatory factor analytic procedure that adjusted for the missing data. After making some adjustments, the above four-factor solution was found to provide a reasonable fit to the data. Estimated correlations among the four factors (F) ranged from a high of .32 for F1 and F2 to a low of .06 for F3 and F4. All factor loadings were statistically significant.

Copyright © 2010 by ASME

Figures

Tables

Interactive Graphics

Video

Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In