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The Operating Features of a Stoichiometric, Ammonia and Gasoline Dual Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

[+] Author Affiliations
Shawn M. Grannell, Dennis N. Assanis, Stanislav V. Bohac, Donald E. Gillespie

University of Michigan

Paper No. IMECE2006-13048, pp. 15-27; 13 pages
  • ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Energy Conversion and Resources
  • Chicago, Illinois, USA, November 5 – 10, 2006
  • Conference Sponsors: Nuclear Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4783-7 | eISBN: 0-7918-3790-4
  • Copyright © 2006 by ASME


An overall stoichiometric mixture of air, gaseous ammonia and gasoline was metered into a single cylinder, variable compression ratio, supercharged CFR engine at varying ratios of gasoline to ammonia. The engine was operated such that the combustion was knock-free with minimal roughness for all loads ranging from idle up to a maximum load in the supercharge regime. For a given load, speed, and compression ratio there was a range of ratios of gasoline to ammonia for which knock-free, smooth firing was obtained. This range was investigated at its roughness limit and also at its knock limit. If too much ammonia was used, then the engine fired with an excessive roughness. If too much gasoline was used, then knock-free combustion could not be obtained while the maximum brake torque spark advance was maintained. Stoichiometric operation on gasoline alone was also investigated, for comparison. It was found that a significant fraction of the gasoline used in spark ignition engines could be replaced with ammonia. Operation on mostly gasoline was required near idle. However, mostly ammonia could be used at high load. Operation on ammonia alone was possible at some of the supercharged load points. Generally, the use of ammonia or ammonia with gasoline allowed knock-free operation at higher compression ratios and higher loads than could be obtained with the use of gasoline alone. The use of ammonia/gasoline allowed practical operation at a compression ratio of 12:1 whereas the limit for gasoline alone was 9:1. When running on ammonia/gasoline the engine could be operated at brake mean effective pressures that were more than 50% higher than those achieved with the use of gasoline alone. The maximum brake thermal efficiency achieved with the use of ammonia/gasoline was 32.0% at 10:1 compression ratio and BMEP = 1025 kPa. The maximum brake thermal efficiency possible for gasoline was 24.6% at 9:1 and BMEP = 570 kPa.

Copyright © 2006 by ASME



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