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Shakedown and Ratcheting Directives of ASME B&PV Code and Their Execution

[+] Author Affiliations
Arturs Kalnins

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA

Paper No. PVP2002-1221, pp. 47-55; 9 pages
  • ASME 2002 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
  • Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes and Standards
  • Vancouver, BC, Canada, August 5–9, 2002
  • Conference Sponsors: Pressure Vessels and Piping Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4650-4
  • Copyright © 2002 by ASME


ASME B&PV Code directives for shakedown and ratcheting evaluation are reviewed. The objective is to assess their effectiveness when executed with plastic finite element analysis (FEA) and to propose procedures when they are inadequate. At first, they are applied to cases involving cyclic primary loading only, for which shakedown is evaluated. It is found that FEA is not suitable to determine whether plastic shakedown is achieved for a given loading. An alternate approach based on physical grounds leads to the conclusion that if only primary loading is cycled, and if the loading does not exceed the design limit load, plastic shakedown is always achieved. Then the directives are applied to cases in which cyclic thermal or other displacement-controlled loading is superimposed on primary loading with a mean, which may lead to ratcheting. Three ratcheting measures are applied to a thermal transient example. It is found that FEA is not suitable for establishing the absence of ratcheting of a vessel for a given loading by requiring zero growth of its dimensions. The ratcheting check is modified by specifying an acceptable limit on the increments of the ratcheting measure that are predicted by plastic FEA within a specified number of cycles, which makes it practical for design purposes. A decision is required on an acceptable growth of the diameter of a vessel that would not endanger the serviceability of the vessel during its life.

Copyright © 2002 by ASME



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