The development of DNA sensors has attracted substantial research efforts. Such devices could be used for the rapid identification of pathogens in humans, animals, and plant; in the detection of specific genes in animal and plant breeding; and in the diagnosis of human genetic disorders. The first step to fabricate the DNA sensors is the probe immobilization on the suitable substrate. Traditionally, the DNA probes are spotted on the substrate while the technique hardly controlled the small pattern and surface density of DNA probes. The main challenge here is to achieve probe layer uniformity and the nature of the probe layer itself in few micron and sub-micron feature range.

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