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ASME Conference Presenter Attendance Policy and Archival Proceedings

2013;():i. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-NS.
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This online compilation of papers from the ASME/USCG 2013 3rd Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards (MTS2013) represents the archival version of the Conference Proceedings. According to ASME’s conference presenter attendance policy, if a paper is not presented at the Conference by an author of the paper, the paper will not be published in the official archival Proceedings, which are registered with the Library of Congress and are submitted for abstracting and indexing. The paper also will not be published in The ASME Digital Collection and may not be cited as a published paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Equipment and Materials

2013;():1-12. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0301.
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The paper provides background on how bilge water has changed over the years and how technology has enabled manufacturers to stay ahead of the curve by borrowing technological breakthroughs from other areas to the measurement of oil content in the marine environment. Light scattering provides today a universal and reliable method, able to measure the wide range of oils present in a wildly variable and unpredictable bilge water mixture.

Bilge water regulations were put in place to reduce the potential of harm to the environment from oily bilge water discharges. Regulations require that instruments verify effluent quality continually during the discharge process, which precludes the adoption for shipboard use of standard laboratory style testing with the associated time delays to complete the analysis. Measuring oil content with the light scattering measuring instrument is a tried and tested means for compliant bilge water verification. State of the art instruments employ sophisticated light measuring systems and they use complex algorithms to convert the scattered light pattern values into oil content reading, thereby considering interference from other than oil suspended matter, they prevent harm to the environment from bilge water discharges.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():13-20. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0302.
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Larger vessels are now being moored at terminals which are exposed to high waves and in channels which are subjected to passing-ship-induced forces. These situations increase mooring line wear and loads and sometimes cause mooring failures.

This paper will discuss some of the associated problems and some of the solutions.

Use of high-performance fiber ropes instead of wire ropes can decrease mooring loads. These mooring line ropes can be handled by fewer people. The risk of injuries is greatly reduced.

When properly cared for, these fiber ropes last longer than wires in service. But fiber ropes are vulnerable to abrasion damage, especially in vessel fairleads. Special nylon fairlead liners are now available to eliminate this wear problem.

Fiber rope tails are used on mooring lines to increase stretch and reduce peak loads. Greater vessel motions at exposed location moorings have caused cyclic loading fatigue in nylon tails. Industry recommendations have now been clarified to allow the use of longer nylon tails and of polyester tails. More durable nylon tails are now available.

Larger vessels entering into and mooring along confined channels increase the risks of passing ship problems. Passing-ship induced forces increase with vessel size and with the greater speed at which larger vessels must pass in order to maintain steerage.

Computer mooring analyses should be conducted to ensure that mooring arrangements are adequate. These analyses should account for effects of waves at exposed locations and should include appropriate passing-ship forces.

This paper will be of interest to designers and operators of large vessels and of marine terminals intended for such vessels.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Mooring
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():21-27. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0303.
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Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a flexible structure is a hydro-elasticity phenomenon. In current VIV design of marine tubular, the effect of structural stiffness variations is not fully accounted for. A new design procedure for the VIV motions of the first mode is presented in this paper. Numerical examples indicate that this new method may provide a safer design.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():28-51. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0304.
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Grooved piping has been used on shipboard applications since the early 1920’s, first in the United Kingdom than many other parts of the world. It gained rapid acceptance in the UK for its many advantages over flange connections. In the US it was used on many Merchant and Naval vessels constructed during World War II, partly for its speed of installation, but also for its less fussy tolerance requirements with regard to pipe length and joint alignment. It has since grown to become used worldwide in many types of vessels. This paper enumerates grooved pipe joints advantages and its technical underpinnings.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Pipe joints
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

LNG and CNG Technology

2013;():52-53. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0305.
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Liberator Engine Company, LLC designs, develops and produces alternative fuel engines for vehicles around the globe. The Company’s 6.0 Liter Liberator™ gaseous fuels engine will have the ability to operate on Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Natural Gas or Liquid Propane Gas: clean, domestic, economical fuels. The Liberator engine will target OEM on road vehicles, as well as off road applications. The Liberator engine is also an excellent choice for the repower of existing diesel vehicles. The 6.0L Liberator™ engine will serve as a replacement engine for vehicle currently operating on a Cummins 5.9L diesel engine or Mercedes diesel 6.0L engine.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Fuels , Natural gas
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():54-66. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0306.
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The design and certification of Type C independent tanks for gas fuelled ships presents a unique set of challenges. This paper examines some of these challenges and provides a step-by-step overview of the design and certification process for these tanks. Apart from design considerations, this paper also elaborates on some of the fabrication, inspection and testing requirements for these tanks.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Design , Ships
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():67-70. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0307.
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The presentation describes some of the challenges involved with the usage of LNG as a marine fuel. Today there are 37 vessels in operation in Norway and 35 of them have tanks under deck or accommodation. With the higher LNG Fuel investments for new-buildings, it makes good environmental and business sense to ensure that the vessels are additionally designed with energy efficiency, in line with IMO’s latest regulation towards CO2 reduction. In addition to the environmental benefit of using LNG, this gives further longer term economic benefits.

Various passenger Ro-Ro ferries with tanks under accommodation are described. In understanding how the tanks under accommodation and passenger areas are safely designed and accepted by IMO, the properties and the facts about LNG are illustrated to give a clear understanding on how the risks are relatively easy to mitigate and manage. Risk is a function of the likelihood of occurrence versus consequence. The mitigation methods in lowering the probability from occurrence are described. A look at the component in the LNG fuel propulsion system that is really critical and how this is mitigated is examined.

Another concern in the widespread use of small scale LNG is with the crew competence level related to LNG bunkering. The various methods of bunkering are described. Some developments towards safety and competence development in the industry are described.

The presentation concludes with some of the key elements included in the Crew Competence Standard.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():71-79. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0308.
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Marine transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is well established and extensive precedents for the design of the ships and tanks exist. Fewer precedents exist for the transport of compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper describes the application of composite (fiber) wrapped pressure vessels constructed to the requirements of ASME Section VIII Division 3, Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels (Division 3) to pressure vessels for marine CNG transport. Since the density of CNG is much lower than the density of LNG, efficient transport requires that the pressure vessels be as light as possible while ensuring pressure integrity. The advantages of a composite fiber wrap and of Division 3 construction for this application will be discussed.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Human Element and Risk Management

2013;():80-87. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0309.
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DP operators are trained to be reactionary — to know what to do, how to do it, and when to do it — but understanding why certain actions are performed and the potential consequences is lacking. Further, the policies and procedures enacted at the management and regulatory levels fail to address many potential risks, further endangering personnel, the environment, assets, and operations. It is therefore an industry responsibility to monitor and develop the competencies of not only DP operational personnel, but also of shore side management at all levels, and to ensure the applicability of policies and procedures that affect DP operations.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():88-104. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0310.
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Regulations governing the safety of drilling and offshore production operations have changed since the Macondo spill. This paper suggests management level perspectives on the nexus of human factors and safety management systems including an overview of ideas from: Congressional Testimony; the Bipartisan Policy Center inputs to the Presidents Commission on the Spill; the National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council Deepwater Horizon Report, and workshops and initiatives by RPSEA (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America), SPE, and ASME. The value of benchmarks from risk management practices from the aviation, nuclear power, and financial community are also discussed. The paper will also consider questions as to what management might consider reducing risk and treating risk management as not just a cost center, but as a way to integrate safety management systems into improving corporate performance for all stakeholders.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Safety , Human factors
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():105-111. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0311.
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Scenario based learning that places you in the various roles within the LNG bunkering process. Understand the knowledge requirements necessary to maximise safety in LNG bunkering operations. Discover how to assess the competency gap between crew, terminal personnel and port staff to mitigate the human element risks in LNG bunkering. Work together to utilize this analysis to determine training that builds upon existing skills, optimizes training times and harmonises with those involved in the operations.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():112-130. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0312.
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Failures of machinery and systems aboard towing vessels can have devastating consequences to the vessel, its crew, other vessels and their crews, shoreside populations and facilities, cargoes, marine transportation systems, commerce, and the environment. This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for implementing Risk-Based Maintenance and Inspections of towing vessel machinery and systems. Utilizing incident data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) and other relevant industry information, the authors apply the principles set forth in ANSI/API Recommended Practice 580, Risk-based Inspection [1], as a guideline.

Relatively straightforward to implement, the methodology presented in this paper is expected to improve towing vessel safety, reduce potential dangers associated with towing operations, and provide favorable risk/benefit reward to vessel owners.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():131-140. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0313.
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This paper describes a risk-based approach for corrosion management of offshore floating structures. The objective of this approach is to reduce the risk of corrosion related failures, reduce the associated downtime, while improving the cost-effectiveness of corrosion inspection and maintenance.

Corrosion is increasingly a significant challenge to the offshore industry and attributed to: an aging worldwide offshore fleet; assets being kept in operation for prolonged periods of time; units operating beyond their original “design basis”; and newer larger vessels in deeper, harsher environments with less opportunity for ship yard repair. Corrosion is particularly detrimental to the integrity of the unit, and if not managed properly will increase maintenance costs and downtime costs, possibly reducing the useful operational life of the unit. Although, there are several existing offshore corrosion design standards, experience still reveals a number of assets in poor and critical condition due to corrosion.

Clearly there is a need for a holistic approach on corrosion management during the full operational life of the asset. The presented methodology is based on the principles of ISO 31000 (Risk Management - Principles and Guidelines) to provide a solid consistent framework for corrosion management. The risk-based corrosion management process for offshore structures described in this paper consists of five (5) basic steps: Pre Assessment; Screening and Risk Ranking; Detailed Examination; Remediation and Repair; and Life Cycle Management.

Adopting the described risk based corrosion methodology will provide confidence to the operators and demonstrable evidence to key stakeholders that corrosion is being managed on their assets. It will account for life extension, reduce the risk of corrosion failure, and lower the cost of inspection and maintenance.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Corrosion , Risk
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Offshore Marine Technology

2013;():141-150. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0314.
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Offshore oil and gas wells are being drilled into formations that have pressures up to 200 MPa (30,000 psi) and temperatures over 175°C (350°F). Most of the existing API Standards for pressure equipment, such as valves and blow out preventers (BOPs), are limited to pressures of about 100 MPa (15,000 psi). The design requirements in ASME Section VIII Division 3, Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels (Div. 3), can be adapted for the design of this equipment with some modifications. Since the strength of the materials used in these applications is limited due to environmental cracking concerns, it is necessary to accept some local yielding in areas of stress concentrations. Therefore, it is particularly important to apply the elastic-plastic analysis requirements in Div. 3 with appropriate limits on local strain as well as the robust fracture mechanics based fatigue analysis requirements.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():151-157. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0315.
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This paper presents a new ocean platform concept, the fully constrained platform (FCP). In a nut-shell, FCP is a fixed-in-place deepwater platform concept, which has the least amount of motion in harsh environment, compared to all other deepwater platforms currently in use. For an intermediate water depth, from 100 to 1,000 ft, the FCP concept could be competitive to existing designs. FCP is the core technology for a new class of marine structures, and has the potential to be used anywhere in world’s ocean for any purpose, which requires a support structure with minimum motions.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():158-170. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0316.
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This paper summarizes experiences from independent HIL testing of DP system software on more than 80 DP drilling, shuttle tanker, supply, anchor handling, construction and special purpose vessels. The paper includes examples of typical findings and a comprehensive analysis of finding statistics. The analysis shows how errors and weaknesses in core software and system configuration are distributed on the different functions in the DP system, as well as the potential consequence these errors could have had if they had not been identified and solved through early testing. The presented experiences demonstrate that independent testing of control systems using HIL testing technology is an important and effective service to ensure safe and reliable operation of offshore vessels.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():171-176. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0317.
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Last decade has seen a spurt in autonomous technologies in military and civilian sectors. The search for oil and gas is moving into ever deeper waters, and the need for coastal surveillance and climatic monitoring, makes underwater autonomous assistance quite obvious for a developing nation like India with thousands of kilometres of coastline. Using such platforms in these endeavours provides an efficient way to keep human life out of harm’s way in hostile environments.

The prototype developed has its navigation based on an internal IMU (Inertial Mass Unit) and the software is extensible to support DVL (Doppler Velocity Logger) based navigation. Near range object detection and path planning is achieved via Image Processing and using two surge and one heave thrusters the bot can operate in three degrees of freedom. The modular structure allows for the addition of extra sensors like pressure, temperature and manipulators like grippers and torpedoes. It has a Intel Atom processor, which runs the control algorithms for motion and required task completion.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Regulatory and Classification Society

2013;():177-182. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0318.
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In cooperation with industry partners, ABS supports a database of maritime accidents and close calls, as well as the associated causes. Analyses of these data are used, in part, to guide the research and development activities of the ABS Safety and Human Factors Department. With regard to occupational safety, a dominant theme in these data is the relationship of the design of structures for means of access to crew member injuries and deaths, with significant numbers of these occurring during the use of ladders, stairs, hatches, platforms, and other access aids. As a result, an ABS Guide has been prepared to evaluate the ergonomic design characteristics of access structures aboard ships and offshore facilities. Compliance with the requirements in the Guide can lead to the granting of up to four separate ABS ergonomic notations (ERGO notations).

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():183-194. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0319.
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The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) that is part of a new Chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex 6 on Energy Efficiency Regulations is mandatory for new ships effective 1 January 2013. During the period from 2011 to the end of 2012, many of the major shipyards and shipping companies have voluntarily complied with the requirements of EEDI calculation and verification for their newbuilds. This paper outlines requirements of EEDI verification procedure and aspects of the verification method that are important to the calculation of EEDI reference speed from speed trials. This paper shows the outcome of the verification process that some new ships have gone through, the degree of compliance achieved and the experience gained in EEDI verification for three types of ships: tankers, bulk carriers and containerships. Sources of uncertainties associated with lack of complete information from sea trials are identified. Comparison of the attained and required EEDI for the three vessel types demonstrating the degree of compliance in Phases 0 and 1 are included.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():195-199. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0320.
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The Ballast Water Management Convention was adopted in 2004 and Guidelines G8 for type approval of ballast water treatment systems were adopted in 2008. Since then, treatment systems have developed and testing procedures and capabilities have improved significantly.

In June 2012, the USCG final rules for the discharge standard of living organisms in ships’ ballast water entered into force. This final ruling includes prescriptive requirements for type approval of treatment systems that differ in substance from the non-mandatory type approval guidelines established under the BWM Convention.

This paper will explain the practical steps towards achieving a G8 type approval based on existing projects, and will address the possibility of combining type approvals following both Guidelines G8 and the USCG final rules.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():200-207. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0321.
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The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) develops consensus codes and standards for fire and life safety for a wide array of occupancies, including the maritime industry. With documents originating in the early 1920’s, NFPA maritime safety standards reflect current practices in vessel design and operations, new hazards, and new technology. These documents include safe practices associated with confined space entry and hot work operations during construction, maintenance, and repair; shipyard fire protection safety management; and suppression system design, installation, and testing/maintenance. This presentation highlights those consensus standards contributing to safety management within the maritime industry.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2013;():208-213. doi:10.1115/MTS2013-0322.
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The Code of Federal Regulations specifically adopts the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as the standards for diving systems in US waters. Not all hyperbaric systems are made to ASME standards. This paper presents methods used successfully to obtain US Coast Guard and other jurisdictional approval of non-ASME pressure vessels for human occupancy.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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