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IN THIS VOLUME


Citrus Engineering

1955;():1-6. doi:10.1115/CEC1955-0101.
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The so-called Cinderella of the citrus industry, Frozen Orange Juice Concentrate, started with a production of 226,000 gallons in 1946. Last year 67,000,000 gallons of Frozen Orange Juice concentrate were produced. In 1946 there was only one plant in operation on the product as it is known today. Today there are 24 plants operating. In considering the phenomenal growth of this product and its impact on the citrus industry, there is one very important fact to keep in mind: This is that the frozen product was originally conceived as a high quality product which would be competitive with fresh juice. Most of you will remember that the Single Strength industry got its start primarily as a by-product. The idea was that while the Single Strength product was not as good as fresh juice, it would produce some profit for the grower and would expand the use of the citrus crop. The general feeling in the Single Strength industry has been that it could not return to the grower the same profit that the fresh market would and many people considered it strictly a salvage operation. The philosophy surrounding frozen concentrate is entirely different. While the question of its comparative taste against freshly squeezed product can be debated, the fact remains that the housewife has accepted it wholeheartedly. During last season over 50% of the Florida orange crop went into orange concentrate.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1955;():7-43. doi:10.1115/CEC1955-0102.
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The primary aim of this paper is to point out the need for proper water treatment for boiler and refrigeration equipment in the citrus industry. Generally speaking, the treatment that applies in this industry will apply in any other industry as well. However, since many packing and processing plants in Florida have grown up practically overnight, the production end of the operation has been stressed but some of the basic needs have been by-passed because there has, at times, been a lack of capital. At other times speed was an essential and some of the fundamentals of good operation were forgotten.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Water treatment
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1955;():44-53. doi:10.1115/CEC1955-0103.
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To introduce the subject of precooling it would probably be well to define precooling. As used in most cases precooling means the rapid cooling during or as soon after processing as possible. This is done in order to remove not only the field heat but to reduce the fruit temperature in order to reduce respiration. In addition to previous reasons, precooling will lower the temperature of fruit loaded into cars, consequently reducing the refrigeration load on the car. The end effect of precooling is to provide the customer with better fruit and as a consequence to increase sales.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1955;():54-74. doi:10.1115/CEC1955-0104.
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A general expansion of existing Cold Storage Warehousing or a program for construction of entirely new facilities calls for the proper analysis of design considerations and, most important, it requires that management properly establish the design consideration or search-out through study and professional advice, all fundamental considerations for analysis. The high cost per unit of warehouse space plus the fact that, once in use, the building and mechanical equipment cannot be readily and inexpensively repaired, changed, or added to makes careful selection and analysis of all considerations most important.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Design , Storage
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1955;():75-84. doi:10.1115/CEC1955-0105.
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Pollution has been defined as “too much of anything” and that is about as satisfactory as any other definition. Thus, the discharge of sewage into a bathing lake to such an extent as to render the waters unsatisfactory for bathing purposes is definitely pollution. By the same token, so is the discharge of acid wastes in sufficient quantity so that the biological balance of a stream is upset also pollution. In like manner, the discharge of heated water into an underground stratum from which cooling water is taken may constitute pollution and, in some cases, decaying vegetation or fertilizer washed from the soil by surface runoff has been considered pollution.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1955;():85-92. doi:10.1115/CEC1955-0106.
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One of the most perplexing problems that confronts the designer of citrus processing machinery and equipment is that of corrosion resistance. Citrus waste product, pulp, and juice have a citric acid content of around 2.7% by weight which will quickly destroy paint or lacquer finishes and will rapidly corrode carbon or low alloy steels. Only the highly alloyed chromium nickel steels, monel, inconel, pure nickel, some of the bronzes, tin and copper can withstand the corrosive attack of citrus juice and pulp.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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