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IN THIS VOLUME


Citrus Engineering

1956;():1-5. doi:10.1115/CEC1956-0204.
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Almost four million tons of citrus fruit were used by the Florida processing plants last year. Juice obtained from citrus represents only approximately half of the weight of the fruit. Two million tons of peel, pulp and seeds, accumulated yearly at processing plants, presents a challenge and an opportunity. This is a large amount of raw material, readily available, concentrated in a relatively small number of locations, and produced over a period of time which makes possible economical handling and processing.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1956;():1-5. doi:10.1115/CEC1956-0206.
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The present day packinghouse for processing and shipping fresh fruit has come a long way since the machinery was driven by manpower on hand cranks and shipped by steamboat to market. Compared to some of the other automized industries of today, much of the packing and handling of fresh fruit is still done by hand labor and brute strength.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1956;():1-8. doi:10.1115/CEC1956-0205.
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Normally when one gives a paper dealing with the subject “Getting the Most Out Of” it is generally tied to a circumstance. In your industry the writer tried to find and evaluate such a circumstance, but let’s look at the ledger.

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Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1956;():1-10. doi:10.1115/CEC1956-0201.
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To the Refrigerating Engineer, the Citrus Industry presents a challenging and interesting array of problems. The tremendous acceptance of Air Conditioning coupled with the wide use of refrigeration in processes of all types has led to development of many acceptable refrigerants and refrigerating machines. For the concentration, freezing, and storage of citrus juices, refrigeration is required at various temperature levels.

Paper published with permission.

Topics: Refrigeration
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1956;():1-11. doi:10.1115/CEC1956-0202.
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The Citrus Processing industry has come a long way in the last twenty years. In some respects the handling of plant wastes may be said to have kept pace with this growth. Two decades ago, the only by-product was peel oil. Peelings and pulp were hauled away to groves or other suitable locations by crude forerunners of modern dump trucks. The more remote this location was the better since the odor could be terrific. Any suitable lake or city sewer or underground well was used for liquid wastes.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1956;():1-15. doi:10.1115/CEC1956-0203.
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Cartoned, or chilled orange juice as it is commonly called, is single strength orange juice which is marketed in a waxed fiberboard carton. It is prepared and treated in such a manner as to retain most of the flavor and aroma which is associated with freshly extracted orange juice. As a result it is quite perishable in nature and must be maintained under adequate refrigeration in order to reach the ultimate consumer in a palatable form. It is now produced by more than twenty processing firms in the state of Florida and marketed under more than seventy trade names or labels. In addition to the Florida producers there are several firms in the state of California producing a similar product for distribution on the West Coast. Chilled, or cartoned, orange juice produced in the state of Florida is distributed throughout the United States as far North as Canada and as far West as Oklahoma City. During the past season more than 3,000,000 boxes of Florida oranges were used in the production of this product. It is anticipated that during the current season an excess of 5,000,000 boxes will be utilized. Producers of this product range in size and investment from large citrus processing firms which have been well established in other citrus products for years, to small operators who have only two extracting machines and some used dairy equipment as a physical plant. Distribution ranges from large fleets of privately owned refrigerated trucks to once a week shipping schedules by a chartered refrigerated van.

Paper published with permission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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