ASME Conference Presenter Attendance Policy and Archival Proceedings

2017;():V012T00A001. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-NS12.

This online compilation of papers from the ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE2017) represents the archival version of the Conference Proceedings. According to ASME’s conference presenter attendance policy, if a paper is not presented at the Conference by an author of the paper, the paper will not be published in the official archival Proceedings, which are registered with the Library of Congress and are submitted for abstracting and indexing. The paper also will not be published in The ASME Digital Collection and may not be cited as a published paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Transportation Systems: Propulsion Systems and Fuels

2017;():V012T16A001. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70253.

A runway-based space access system concept based on two stages to orbit is further refined. Routine access to Space with large payloads is essential for Space infrastructure projects such as solar power stations. The aim is to develop a reference architecture to enable cost estimation for a large reusable fleet. Prior work established that a 25000 kg payload could be delivered to low earth orbit starting with takeoff from a runway using a vehicle with the parameters of today’s large airliners. Hydrogen-fueled high-bypass turbofans provide efficient subsonic climb while oxygen is liquefied and stored. The second stage is launched at transonic speed at 18 kilometers altitude, followed by aerodynamic flight with ramjet, SCRAMjet and then rocket propulsion to orbit. A new feature is a brief rocket burn to fill the transonic ramjet performance gap, followed by ramjet-powered supersonic acceleration and climb. Beyond 60 km, SCRAMJET acceleration reaches the von Karman limit of 100km at Mach 8, beyond which rocket propulsion takes the craft to orbit. A refined initial mass estimation process allows the design to close swiftly, showing that payload capacity can be increased in future iterations with the same carrier aircraft parameters.

Topics: Rockets
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A002. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71794.

The selection process and procurement of right transit bus with fuel and powertrain technology is vital for any cost-effective transit service. There are cities in which conventional diesel fueled bus is used for transit service. It is not always viable to replace the whole or part of the fleet with a vehicle with a different powertrain. Every city are unique in its road type, road grade, service routes, meteorological aspects and traffic population. Since, each of the powertrain technology offers a different combination of advantages and disadvantages, we need to study and analysis each drivetrain technology to find out the best match for our city. There is a variation in transit bus types that are suitable for distinct types of cities, services, and operations. Fuel consumption is directly related to the bus size, engine technology and powertrain. Evaluating fuel consumption correctly, predicting detailed emission for the greenhouse gases and analyzing life cycle costing could be a daunting task and often needs expensive on-board equipment and intricate simulation testing. Lacking this kind of amenities makes it impossible for transit service on a county scale and project level research. In this study, a local database of transit service generated from the well documented database to provide a detailed analysis of fuel consumption, emission and life cycle costing. The integral part of evaluating fuel consumption accurately is to compare test data over a relevant drive cycle. This research also discusses drive cycle and how to select from standard drive cycle for urban city transit network.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A003. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72186.

When solving real-world engineering problems, simplified models are commonly used to improve the calculation efficiency. However, the obtained simulation results are usually with low accuracy. Some researches are conducted to investigate the impact of feature-based model simplification on simulation results. First, models with similar features of different parameters are simplified. Then the simplified model and the corresponding original model are simulated in the same boundary conditions. And the simulation results between the simplified and original model are evaluated with some validation metrics. Finally, through an engineering case, some conclusions are obtained about the impacts of the features with different sizes and locations on simulation results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Transportation Systems: Transportation Systems Crashworthiness, Occupant Protection, and Biomechanics

2017;():V012T16A004. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70557.

Cross-median crashes are one of the most severe type of highway crashes. Many state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) install median barriers, such as cable median barriers (CMBs), to reduce the rate of cross-median crashes. Nonetheless, these barriers are not always successful.

Approximately 20,000 cable barrier crashes throughout the United States spanning between 1999 and 2010 were examined, and detailed data was sufficient to determine the prevailing causes of 182 penetration crashes (i.e., barrier was breached). Penetration crashes involving CMBs were affected by: (1) impact conditions; (2) barrier placement and design; and (3) vehicle factors, including geometry and inertial properties.

In general, CMB crashes occur at higher CG trajectory angles than with other roadside features. The 85th percentile CG trajectory angle for cable barriers was 39 degrees, compared to 25 degrees when all roadside features are considered. Approximately 2.2% of all CMB crashes were severe, although penetrations were between two and thirteen times more likely to be severe than non-penetration crashes.

Vehicle factors such as weight and geometrical profile affected the likelihood of CMB penetrations. Headlights or taillights fractured or were damaged in approximately 80% of non-penetration crashes, but were damaged or fractured in less than 60% of penetration crashes, often by additional unrelated impacts. Lastly, heavier vehicles with more kinetic energy were more likely than similar, lighter vehicles to penetrate CMBs. Through better understanding of all of the complicating factors affecting CMB performance, better designs and guidelines can be prepared to maximize CMB effectiveness.

Topics: Cables , Vehicles
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A005. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71588.

Poles are regularly placed along highways and are used to support signs, lights and electrical lines. The Midwest Guardrail System (MGS) is a standard W-beam guardrail system used throughout the United States to redirect vehicles that leave the roadway away from dangerous roadside obstacles, like ravines, water hazards, and bridge piers. Placing poles near a guardrail may affect its ability to safely contain and redirect vehicles. The compatibility of poles placed in the proximity of the MGS is studied using nonlinear finite element analysis. Computer simulations were conducted with vehicles impacting the MGS with varying lateral pole offsets between the back of the system and the front face of the pole, and varying longitudinal pole location from being placed directly behind a post to directly behind the unsupported rail half-way between posts. Results show that poles placed within 16 inches behind the MGS may cause concern in regard to acceptable crash test performance for guardrail systems. Additional simulations and full-scale crash testing is required before guidelines can be recommended.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A006. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72026.

Injuries to the upper extremities that are caused by dynamic impacts in crashes, including contact with internal instrument panels, has been a major concern, especially for smaller female occupants, and the problem worsens with increasing age due to reduced strength of the bones. From the analysis of 1988–2010 CDS unweighted data, it was found that risk of AIS ≥ 2 level for the arm was 58.2±20.6 percent higher in females than males, and the injury risk for a 75-year-old female occupant relative to a 21-year-old subjected to a similar physical insult was 4.2 times higher. Although injuries to upper extremities are typically not fatal, they can have long-term effects on overall quality of life. Therefore, it is important to minimize risks of injuries related to upper extremities, especially for elderly females, who are most at risk.

Current anthropomorphic surrogates, like crash-test dummies, cannot be directly used to study injury limits, as these dummies were developed mainly to represent the younger population. The current study is focused on the development of a finite element (FE) model representing the upper extremity of an elderly female. This can be further used to analyze the injury mechanisms and tolerance limits for this vulnerable population. The FE mesh was developed through Computer Tomography (CT) scanned images of an elderly female cadaver, and the data included for validation of the developed model were taken from the experimental studies published in scientific literature, but only the data directly representing elderly females were used. It was found that the developed model could predict fractures in the long bones of elderly female specimens and could be further used for analyzing injury tolerances for this population. Further, it was determined that the developed segmental model could be integrated with the whole body FE model of the elderly female.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A007. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72049.

Physical surrogates and numerical models have been used to investigate the lower limb injury responses in blunt trauma related to occupant and pedestrian impacts during crash events. To date, automotive crash dummies used for studying the lower limb kinematics and injury responses in car crashes are designed to represent mid-age adults. But due to increase in fragility and frailty with age, the injury risk of the lower limb of elderly females is greater compared to younger adults. Thus, safety designs should expand for protecting elderly females in lower limb impacts.

The current study focuses on developing a lower limb finite element model for elderly females with accurate anthropometry and anatomical details. The model was further validated against segmental and whole-body level experimental data of lower limb impact during pedestrian, frontal, and side impact loading. The validated model will be further integrated into the whole-body model to study injury mechanisms and safety designs for this vulnerable population of elderly females.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A008. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72531.

Mobility, firepower and armor protection are three conflicting design requirements in any modern armored vehicle. There is a trade-off between each couple. In this study, we focused on the conflicting relationship between protection and mobility. We characterized mobility using four measurable vehicle dynamic quantities. We surveyed the different approaches for vehicle protection. Then, we studied the effect of each protection approach on vehicle mobility. Adding V shape plates for blast protection has been extensively used in modern armored vehicles with much success. Therefore, we dedicated a detailed study using finite element analysis on a generic V shape protection plate. The study included a parametric study on the effect of V shape angle, standoff distance and material type on the protection performance of the plate. It was concluded that sharper V angles are more efficient in protection. However the V angle is governed by vehicle ground clearance. In cases of vehicles with limited ground clearances, it was concluded that fitting a V shape with any angle can provide some blast protection without sacrificing mobility. We also concluded that lighter materials than steel can be used and still provide enough protection. Finally, it is believed that a study that considers all the aforementioned parameters and their effect on vehicle mobility will help in developing more capable armored vehicles.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A009. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72702.

An analysis of the lower extremity responses in various frontal impact test configurations was performed. The THOR-LX anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a mid-size adult male was used. Four groups of frontal crash test data were analyzed. These groups included: Rigid Fixed Barrier (RFB), Moderate Overlap Offset Deformable Barrier (ODB), Small Overlap Rigid Barrier (SORB), and Oblique Impact (OI) crash tests.. This analysis indicated that the lower extremity responses could be high especially in the oblique impact and small overlap crash tests. This study focused on understanding the causes of the resulting high responses.

ATD lower extremity kinematics and interaction with intruded body structure and/or instrument panel varied in the different frontal impact configurations. Therefore, the dominant causes of lower extremity responses in terms of tibia forces and moments were not the same for all frontal crash modes. Maximum Tibia Index results associated with the four groups of frontal impact tests were used to develop a better understanding of ATD kinematics and response mechanisms of the lower extremities. The contact sequence of the lower leg to vehicle interior components was illustrated for OI.

This paper investigated the cause of lower extremity responses in these crash tests. Analysis indicated that the time at which maximum intrusion occurs did not necessarily coincide with the time of maximum lower extremity responses expressed by the Tibia Index.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Transportation Systems: Transportation Systems Design, Development, Modeling, and Simulations

2017;():V012T16A010. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70325.

The pantograph strip interface involves many physical phenomena. Temperature evolution is one of them. This problem includes various thermal flux and sources. More specifically, due to the train motion, a moving zigzag heat source occurs.

This paper deals with a thermal 2D Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) numerical method for temperature estimations in the train pantograph carbon strip, the aims being a better wear problems anticipation and the creation of a preventive maintenance. For that, an electrical model is coupled to the thermal one to take into account all Joule effects.

The ADI strategy enables a significant computation time reduction against most classical resolution methods. Besides, the model involves two mathematical processes: the first one is an appropriate variable transform which induces a fixed surface heat production, while the second is based on locally refined meshes.

Various numerical tests are presented and discussed in order to show the accuracy of the scheme. From a physical point of view, the results are much interesting. Further investigations, depending on the different parameters, should lead us to predict the strip critical thermal phases.

Topics: Heat , Strips , Trains
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A011. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70739.

The present work aims at helping the automotive industry reduce warranty. First of all, an equation was developed to predict the warranty Incident per Thousand Vehicle (IPTV) ahead. A study was done to analyze the key points of quality that are related to Production Part Approval Process (PPAP): Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA), First Time Quality (FTQ), complexity of the part, and Controlled Shipping (CS) to statically show the warranty reduction among different suppliers. Secondly, an Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 in a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station ensures that the supplier is enforcing the PPAP requirements. The four most important components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing.

The enhanced process can provide more confidence in the life of a part in terms of producing quality parts and catching any defects that may result from a line move, or sub-tier change. If the supplier sets a process that is implemented at the End of Line (EOL), they will spend more time doing the proposed audit for their component. This will result in earlier identification of defects, parts that are out of tolerance, or parts that do not meet PPAP requirements. This process also might require spending extra money to run testing and can be included in the piece cost, but will save money by reducing warranty and by gaining repeat customers.

Topics: Manufacturing
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A012. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70880.

The efficiencies of gears in a multi-speed bicycle gearbox transmission were measured and efforts were taken to establish measurement repeatability. Data collected from this apparatus challenges manufacturers to improve their product lines. Given that cyclists are limited in their ability to sustain power supplied through pedaling, minimizing drivetrain losses is very important. Previous researchers have measured various bicycle drives, including chains and belts, multi-speed derailleur sets and multi-speed hub gear transmissions. This study continued to measure the efficiency of a Pinion P1.12 multi-speed crank transmission. Repeatability studies were performed using a custom apparatus, capable of providing a wide range of input speed, output power and configuration adjustments and the experiment procedure was adjusted accordingly. Efficiency was evaluated as the ratio of flywheel power to motor power over fourteen combinations of crank speed and output power for each gear. The means and 95% confidence intervals for these efficiencies were calculated, and a nonlinear regression was used to model the data as an exponential function of output torque. The mean of the means was calculated and fit with an exponential curve. Gear efficiency was determined to be the efficiency at infinite output torque, although this theoretical value is only approached at moderate cycling torques. Results indicate these transmissions are comparable to many modern multispeed geared bicycle hubs, ranging from 91.6–94.95%. Single-speed and derailleur systems can obtain higher efficiencies. However, the Pinion transmission provides enhanced reliability, reduced maintenance and relocates the majority of the drive weight to the middle of the bicycle. A repeatability study was conducted on the P1.12 transmission.

Topics: Bicycles
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A013. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71288.

Ride comfort is the level of comfort sensed by the passengers when they are continuously exposed to the vibration and noise. To diminish the vibration level, air springs are used in the secondary suspension system instead of coil springs, especially in the modern railway vehicles. This article focuses on the modeling of Nishimura air spring with non-linear damper and human biodynamic (bio-mechanical) model by using multi-energy domain modeling approach, bond graph. The car body of the railway vehicle is treated as a beam and the first five modes including three flexible modes are considered in the model. We use International Organization for Standardization 2631 for evaluating ride comfort for different durations of the travel time (1 h, 2.5 h, 4 h and 8 h) on flexible and irregular tracks.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Transportation Systems: Transportation Systems Dynamics and Controls

2017;():V012T16A014. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70121.

All through the last decade, the Brazilian pipeline industry has invested heavily in controlling long pipeline’s inventory, leak detection systems and in energy efficiency, the latter being object of study of this paper. A sensitive area to such investments can be perceived in the efforts made to control the energy supply to pumping stations. Nevertheless, one can clearly observe the weight of tradition pending over Brazilian projects resulting in a tendency toward the use of control valves as means of pump controlling. This solution is generally believed to be simpler, more reliable and less costly than the common alternatives. Still and all, as the Brazilian pipeline industry modernizes its facilities and procedures, particularly due to economic and environmental concerns, new strategies for traditional problems are considered and assessed in engineering projects.

Throughout this paper, the authors assess one such project in which the engineering staff chose to apply a variable frequency drive (VFD) instead of the traditional process automated control valve. The company that operates the system made available the necessary process data and project parameters in order to conduct a thorough assessment both from the financial and the technical points of view. Hydraulic data as well as electrical motor parameters were made available to this research as well as a yearlong worth of process instrumentation data. Brazil has a long history investing and developing technology to replace gasoline for ethanol as automotive fuel. The pumps studied, located at the city of Ribeirão Preto, are responsible for pushing ethanol through a pipeline all the way to the Refinery of Paulínia, delivering fuel to be consumed in São Paulo’s metropolitan area, the most populated location in the country. As a basis of comparison, the authors estimated the capital and operational expenditure as well as the energy consumption of a fictional control valve system for the same pipeline and then put them against actual data made available by the company.

As a conclusion, the paper brings to light that, although variable frequency drive systems indeed demand a higher capital expenditure, when the operational costs are considered, they can compensate that initial investment by presenting the facility with more energy efficient operation. Furthermore, after carefully assessing the provided data, the variable frequency drive seems to result in a more continuous and smooth operation maintaining a higher occupation rate of the pipeline. Suggestions are also proposed and assessed as a guide to further investments and operational procedure changes aiming at optimizing the company’s process.

Topics: Pipelines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A015. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70252.

Externally slung loads and their mission applications are becoming more common on human and autonomously piloted air vehicles. Flight speed is often limited not by the performance envelope but by the danger of divergent load oscillations. Certifying this limiting speed for every load-vehicle combination, is a huge barrier to operations. The conservatism dictated by this uncertainty may itself be life-threatening in critical applications. Computing the dynamics of slung loads for a specific load/vehicle combination has been hindered by lack of knowledge on bluffbody aeromechanics. The prevailing top-down approach is to incorporate slung load aeromechanics calculations into large comprehensive aeromechanics codes for rotorcraft. We argue for a bottom-up approach. This allows on-the-fly system identification and dynamics simulation. The Slung Load Amplification Detector (SLAD) concept provides an on-board safety system to predict, detect, avoid and alleviate divergent oscillations. SLAD is based on a knowledge base derived from wind tunnel data and simulation results including canonical geometries, as well as practical shapes. Validation of simulation results against two practical test cases lends confidence. SLAD allows reliable distinction between pseudo and absolute divergence, permitting an increase of as much as 50% speed in safe flight speed, and guidance on active alleviation of oscillations.

Topics: Sensors , Stress
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A016. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70284.

The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) technique has been applied to the design of active vehicle suspensions (AVSs) for improving ride quality and handling performance. LQG-based AVSs have achieved good performance if an accurate vehicle model is available. However, these AVSs exhibit poor robustness when the vehicle model is not accurate and vehicle operating conditions vary. The H control theory, rooted in the LQG technique, specifically targets on robustness issues on models with parametric uncertainties and un-modelled dynamics. In this research, an AVS is designed using the H loop-shaping control, design optimization, and parallel computing techniques. The resulting AVS is compared against the baseline design through numerical simulations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A017. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70917.

This paper presents a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller for active trailer steering (ATS) of a tractor-semitrailer. The tractor-semitrailer is modelled as a linear yaw/roll model with 5 Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF). The linear yaw/roll model is validated with a nonlinear tractor-semitrailer model developed with TruckSim under a simulated single lane-change maneuver. Then, the validated linear yaw/roll model is used to design the LQR controller for ATS. The TruckSim model and the LQR controller are integrated by means of an interface between the software packages of TruckSim and Matlab/Simulink. The LQR controller is assessed using numerical simulation of the TruckSim model with and without the ATS control. Evaluation of the controller is based on the performance measures of the trailer in terms of rearward amplification (RA), peak roll angle, and load transfer ratio (LTR). It is demonstrated that the LQR controller leads to the decrease the peak values of the aforementioned measures by 4.81%, 20.7%, and 33%, respectively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V012T16A018. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71048.

Intelligent tire is a relatively new technology that provides useful tire-road contact information by directly monitoring the interaction between the tire and the road. Different types of sensors are attached to the tire inner-liner for this purpose; the sensor data then will be used to estimate the tire-road contact parameters as well as to monitor the tire conditions.

In this study, a tri-axial accelerometer was used and a two-steps intelligent tire based pressure monitoring algorithm was developed in this study. First, the angular velocity of the wheel was estimated based on the parameters extracted from the acceleration components through a trained neural network. Then the estimated wheel angular velocity from the first step was used along with the acceleration components to estimate the power of radial acceleration. The estimated power was compared to the actual one and the tire pressure condition was judged to be “normal” or “low”. To train the neural networks, the experimental data collected using an instrumented vehicle was used. A VW Jetta 2003 was used for this purpose and instrumented with appropriate sensors; intelligent tires, steering wheel sensor to measure the steering angle, steering velocity and steering torque, encoders to measure the angular speed of the wheels and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to measure the vehicle linear and angular acceleration.

Another set of experimental data with different tire pressures and different vehicle velocity was then used to validate the algorithm; good agreements were observed between the estimated tire pressures and the actual ones.

Topics: Pressure , Algorithms , Tires
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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