ASME Conference Presenter Attendance Policy and Archival Proceedings

2017;():V011T00A001. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-NS11.

This online compilation of papers from the ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE2017) represents the archival version of the Conference Proceedings. According to ASME’s conference presenter attendance policy, if a paper is not presented at the Conference by an author of the paper, the paper will not be published in the official archival Proceedings, which are registered with the Library of Congress and are submitted for abstracting and indexing. The paper also will not be published in The ASME Digital Collection and may not be cited as a published paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Systems, Design, and Complexity: CAD, CAM and CAE Design

2017;():V011T15A001. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70441.

In this work, a new model of a recumbent bike with the tensegrity method is developed, where all elements in tension are substituted for steel cables, to improve the weight of the vehicle and to absorb some of the impacts of the tires, since the cable works as a shock absorber. The aim of this study is to determine the structural strength of each of the elements of the recumbent vehicle and to establish dimensions and construction materials. The model is divided in 6 different elements, applying the equivalent loads and constrains to simulate the interaction with other elements, the user and the road, based on the HPVC 2017 rules [1]. Results show that in the analyzed sections, the maximum Von Mises stress obtained for all elements is 116 MPa, obtaining a minimum safety factor of 2.37 against tensile yield strength. Finally, through this work it is possible to apply the finite element method for failure analysis of each of the components of a recumbent vehicle and maximize its weight and resistance.

Topics: Design , Vehicles
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A002. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70491.

The objective of this study is to develop an automatic process planning and a numerical-control (NC) program generation system for free-form machining, using a turning-milling machine tool with multi-turrets. In this research, machining feature recognition was carried out based on the delta-volume decomposition to achieve process planning. This system can recognize machining features that include one free-form surface and can create a tool path for the free-form surface. A process plan candidate is generated via the assignment of machining features to each turret and the determination of the processing order of the machining features in each turret. The system generates many process plan candidates, and evaluates them based on the evaluation point of the user. In this research, the plan with the shortest machining time is selected. Next, the system automatically generates an NC program for each turret. Ultimately, a machining experiment using a turning-milling machine tool with three turrets was conducted to verify the usefulness of the system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A003. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70967.

Environmental simulations are fundamental part of the architecture and design language. Different systems have been incorporated as technology has progressed. Renders, widely used in Architecture, also presents this development. Although the traditional printed presentation has not changed in recent years, new methods such as the 360-Render displayed on Head-Mounted Displays (HMD) have recently emerged. However, currently there are few systematic comparisons between them. Hence, the objective of this preliminary work was to quantitatively compare these systems support for design: printed Render, and 360-Render in HMD.

Bipolar subjective scales were used as measurement method. Concepts were involved in utility, credibility, understanding of the space and dimensions, and basic aesthetics-emotional aspects. Survey was directed to two profiles: architects and non-architects. The analysis reveals significant results regarding these concepts, formats, and profiles. Results allow reflection on the new means of representation, both in professional and pedagogical scopes.

Topics: Architects
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A004. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71098.

Substitution of steel by lightweight resin-matrix composites is an effective way of weight reduction for automobiles. In this paper, an integrated design method involving material property, structural geometry, process formability and resultant performance for automotive composite components is proposed. Referring to the exterior styling and assembly space of original steel reference, the conceptual CAD model is established. For the selected materials, optimization of minimizing the mass is carried out with layer thickness, stacking sequence and dimensions of each composite component as design variables, referring to the regulations requirements on performance of steel benchmark as constraint conditions. Then the resin transfer molding (RTM) process is simulated and optimized to determine the optimal forming parameters. As an example, a SUV hatchback with composite laminate is developed by RTM technique. Finally, the lightweight design of hatchback is achieved under the multiple constraints of static bending, torsion stiffness and vibration frequencies. The results show that the weight of SUV hatchback has been reduced 38.8%, whereas the stiffness and frequency all meet the requirements. When manufacturing with RTM process, the filling time of the final optimized program is 443 s, without any air trap. This instance has validated the effectiveness and feasibility of the integrated design method which is also applicable to other automotive composite components.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A005. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71100.

This paper discusses the generation of 3D virtual assemblies from design graphs representing gear-trains. The design graph consists of dimensions, assembly and material details, and design constraints of all the gears and the shafts in the gear-train. This data is extracted and using SolidWorks Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), individual components and the overall assembly are generated. The codebase was also used to develop a standalone tool where users could provide these details for automatically generating gear-train parts and assemblies. The paper will detail the process involved, reasoning behind using SolidWorks, benefits, challenges and the future activities related to the generation of 3D gear-train assemblies.

Topics: Design , Gear trains
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A006. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71282.

In this paper, we propose a novel cable harness routing method based on the main channel path using the top-down design strategy, parts spatial distribution and path definition rules. To obtain cable harness routing, a cable harness path optimization algorithm based on undirected-graphs is also discussed in this paper. First of all, in this algorithm, we consider the closest point to the main channel as the access point of the device. Secondly, we convert the cable path to an undirected-graph automatically according to the main channel path. Furthermore, we find the shortest path for the undirected-graph by saving time and avoiding the closed loop. Finally, the 3D models of cable harnesses are generated automatically for the cable harness routing design. To verify this method, a cable harness design software based on Pro/E is developed in this paper. The results show that the efficiency of spacecraft cable harness design is about 50 percent. It is of great significance to fulfill the electro-mechanical automatic integrated cable design and promote the intelligent computer-aided laying technology.

Topics: Cables , Design , Optimization
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Systems, Design, and Complexity: Optimisation

2017;():V011T15A007. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70116.

Swarm intelligence optimization techniques are widely used in topology optimization of compliant mechanisms. The Ant Colony Optimization has been implemented in various forms to account for material density distribution inside a design domain. In this paper, the Ant Colony Optimization technique is applied in a unique manner to make it feasible to optimize for the beam elements’ cross-section and material density simultaneously. The optimum material distribution algorithm is governed by two various techniques. The first technique treats the material density as an independent design variable while the second technique correlates the material density with the pheromone intensity level. Both algorithms are tested for a micro displacement amplifier and the resulting optimized topologies are benchmarked against reported literature. The proposed techniques culminated in high performance and effective designs that surpass those presented in previous work.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A008. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70560.

This paper introduces a generalization of the heuristic gradient projection (HGP) method for solving 2D and 3D frames. The main objective is to minimize the frame weight by means of size, topology and shape optimization considering stress constraint activation. HGP can give a specific iterative equation for each element cross section and loading type and consequently reach the optimum solution in a relatively smaller number of iterations compared to general heuristic recursive equations. However, the solution of frames with combined loads applied on the elements might converge slowly or oscillate around the constrained optimum value. Many approaches were investigated for the generalization of the HGP. However, the emphasis was always directed towards axial and bending loads. Although other types of loads may have an effect on the problem, like shear and torsion stresses in shafts or 3D frames. These types of loads are introduced into the optimization problem with more general algorithm. Weighting factors are utilized to give a weight to each stress type applied on each element. This factor is used to change the power of the HGP iterative formula for each element in the frame, which changes the power of the recursive formula according to the contribution of each loading type applied on the element. The proposed technique shows more accurate results in activating the stress constraints than previously developed HGP when dealing with combined loads, and keeps the advantage of the HGP in finding the optimum solution in a relatively small number of structural analyses. In the case studies several sample applications were solved to highlight the robustness of the proposed method.

Topics: Optimization
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A009. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71485.

Disaster zones are often full of “found” material which are debris that can be recycled and used to build practical structures. In this paper, the question of how to build truss structures from these members of arbitrary geometry is introduced and a solution presented. Assuming a set of “found” truss members is provided and that each beam is made from a set of piecewise lines, they are approximated as straight. This is done to simplify the optimization process. A general linear search is then used to investigate possible structures until an optimal structure, with respect to weight and similarity to a desired construction, is found.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A010. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71972.

A probabilistic model is developed in this study for calculating the failure probability and finding the associated reliability for a given pipeline in a plant affected by the time-dependent failure by corrosion. This is accomplished by applying a probabilistic approach to the Shell-92 pipeline failure prediction model. The Monte Carlo simulation scheme is used to predict the probability of failure. The life cycle cost is also estimated based on predicted probability density function, which shows that failure cost is dominating the maintenance cost in overall life cycle cost. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out to investigate the influence of corrosion parameters on the probability of failure which reflects the effect of axial-radial corrosion rates and depth-length of corrosion defect on failure probability. At the end, optimized corrosion rates are also predicted using the reliability based design and optimization (RBDO) technique, in which the probabilistic constraint has been utilized based on the Shell-92 pipeline failure prediction model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A011. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72555.

In 2015, our team proposed a new development methodology, which we named the Causality Search T-Method (CS-T Method). This method makes it possible to solve the intrinsic limitation of target characteristics-based Parameter Design. Specifically, target characteristics-based Parameter Design is in essence a black-box method, which makes it difficult to obtain information on the mechanisms of quality improvement. The first aim of the CS-T Method is to determine the causal relationships between the target characteristics and multiple candidate “Effective-Explanation Factors” (EEF) such as physical properties, sensing data. The second aim is to improve the efficiency. Through a case study, our team demonstrated that it is possible to determine the causal relationships with significantly fewer experiments.

We propose an extension of the CS-T Method, one which incorporates Graphical Modeling (GM), which we have named the CS-TG Method. Unlike conventional GM, which performs the analysis on the entire pool of candidate EEFs, CS-TG method allows the GM analysis to focus on the limited set of factors that were identified by the original CS-T as having a causal relationship with the target characteristics. In doing so, the new method is able to establish the causal relationships between each of the individual EEFs with fewer experiments.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Systems, Design, and Complexity: Product and Process Design

2017;():V011T15A012. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70052.

Blowout Preventers, BOPs, are essential safety equipment for oil & gas industry. Nevertheless, Brazil does not have a manufacturer that can provide this equipment and the Brazilian National O&G agency regulator has been pushing for O&G explorer and producers to use a minimum of machinery from local suppliers. With this regulatory demand, a BOP was developed from scratch. International Standards have been evaluated to understand what could be adapted as no standard is applied specifically to this equipment. Analytic and numerical simulations were performed and adjusted according to local suppliers’ limitations for materials and testing. Tree prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the design and functionality of the BOPs. At the end, the design was proven to work and the prototypes are being tested for long time without presenting any problems. This project was supported by an innovation agency EMBRAPII and was developed by SENAI CIMATEC to PERBRAS Company.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A013. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70364.

Strong shear force developed in the fluid film as the water-lubricated hybrid bearing operates at high speeds. Thus the phenomena of shaft expanding outward and bearing contracting inward happened due to the increasing temperature of the fluid film caused by the friction heat. So the bearing clearance decreases on account of the thermal deformation of the shaft and the bearing. Seriously, there will be a risk of seizure accident when the speed gets higher. Friction heat may be weakened by adopting low viscosity lubricant and thermal deformation may be reduced by adopting low expansion coefficient materials. Such as the ceramic’s expansion coefficient is 3–5 times smaller than that of typical journal bearing material like tin bronze. Thus, a ceramic journal bearing was developed in this paper to weaken the thermal influence on the bearing clearance. For improving the temperature rise of the journal bearing, a water-lubricated ceramic hydrodynamic-hydrostatic hybrid bearing test rig was designed firstly. Considering expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity effects, the simulation method was used to study the variation of bearing clearance with the speed and the original bearing clearance. Then, the water-lubricated ceramic hydrodynamic-hydrostatic hybrid bearing test rig was developed to verify the temperature characteristics at different speeds. Results indicate that the relative error of the tested temperature results and simulation results was below 10% at different speeds. Lastly, the evolution of bearing clearance with speed and the original bearing clearance was studied through FEM. The advantages of ceramic material were more obvious with the increase of the rotation speed when exceeds 8000rpm.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A014. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70369.

During drilling operations, drill string interacts continuously with rock formation, which result in severe shock and vibrations. Lateral, torsion and axial vibration modes often cause failures of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA), drill pipe abrasive wear, drill bit and wall borehole damages. It also leads to reduction in Rate of Penetration (ROP) and consequently incur unnecessarily high costs. The Lagrangian approach has been used in this study to attain drill pipe lateral and torsional vibration coupling equations of motion. The mathematical model is expressed in terms of four independent degrees of freedom. The effects of bending and torsion vibrations, and whirling motion of the drill string are incorporated in the developed model. A set of nonlinear equations are solved numerically to obtain the response of the system. In this work, we also present a brief description of an in-house constructed experimental setup. The setup has the capability to imitate the downhole axial, lateral and torsional vibration modes and mechanisms. Experimental investigations for the drill pipe fatigue failure due to lateral and torsional cyclic stresses induced in the drill string are also presented. Such investigations are essential for oil/gas industry as they provide solutions for very common problems such as drill string fatigue failure. The performance of the setup was validated. Numbers of tests were performed to investigate the effects of rotational speeds on the vibration amplitudes of different drill string sizes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A015. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70462.

Sustainable design and manufacturing considers a product’s full life cycle and the impact that its design, manufacture, use, and retirement can have not only on business but also the environment and society. Designers are becoming steadily aware of this problem, and are employing techniques that allow them to design with greater responsibility – Sustainable Product Design; in particular, the Design for Disassembly (DFD) is recommended as a technique of sustainable product design. In the case of a durable good with a long-life cycle or a product with parts subject to wear, maintainability/serviceability may be more important than initial product acquisition cost, and the product must be designed for easy maintenance. The DFD principles identify the ease with which products can be fabricated, maintained, serviced, and recycled.

This paper examines and identifies a “Rating Chart” technique which can be used to evaluate DFD. It is demonstrated through a case study of underground escalator housing, in which different types of failure modes and defects occur in the major components of escalator drive systems, such as the motor and its drive chain system, handrail and its drive system, bearings/lubrication systems that are in adjunct with the bearing shaft assembly. Through the Rating Chart method proposed for DFD, the deficiency of the original design of escalator drive system was accessed and compared with the proposed sustainable design approach, in which the product maintainability can be significantly improved and the maintenance time can be greatly reduced. The paper concludes by showing the importance of sustainable product design for products working under extreme working conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A016. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70636.

Plastic is an important material in product design because it easily transforms, is very light, and has multifarious structural characteristics. Nevertheless, it gives the customer the impression of a cheap product. Therefore, decorative techniques are often applied to plastic products. Decorative techniques can improve the appearance of a plastic product while making use of its beneficial characteristics. At present, film insert molding method is predominantly used in decorating plastic products.

In general, a designer creates a three-dimensional design but the film insert molding method uses a two-dimensional pattern. Thus, it is difficult to reproduce a three-dimensional design with a two-dimensional film; no study has been conducted on the reproduction of three-dimensional design using film insert molding method to-date.

The objective of this study is to develop a design generation method to reproduce a three-dimensional design with a two-dimensional film pattern. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally validated.

Topics: Molding
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A017. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70731.

In order to perform engineering design activities aiming at the design of new or redesign of existing products, a number of alternative processes, methods and techniques are available in the literature to the engineering designer/product developing enterprise. These processes, methods and techniques, are usually not explicitly expressed in terms of directives as to when and how they are to be used in the actual design of the product-to-be.

An important goal in product development of today is to fulfill the terms for sustainable development, thus emphasizing the need to develop products which are not overexploiting the available resources provided by nature. By utilizing an approach to development and design based on bionics, i.e. utilizing biological methods and systems found in nature as a means of creating technical solutions, a conceptual framework is provided which is especially fit to accommodate the striving for sustainability.

Striving for lightweight designs provides a significant potential to reduce the energy consumption of the product-to-be, which at present is a highly prioritized goal within sustainable development. Up until now, the dominating approach to lightweight designs has been to utilize lightweight materials such as different types of composites and metallic materials such as aluminum, magnesium and titanium.

By introducing biomimicry into the engineering design process, an additional step towards efficient lightweight design solutions might be within reach. Since the objects created by nature are independent of costs and time, these are most often very complex especially regarding shapes and dimensions. In order to match these constraints in the creation of technical solutions (products), it is necessary to utilize optimization in combination with a flexible manufacturing process. The ideal manufacturing method to meet these demands is Additive Manufacturing (AM), though, at least for the time being, it imposes some constraints in size, costs etc. of the product to be manufactured.

If the product designed is to be suitable for manufacturing for AM, it must be optimized, and so must the way it is to be processed. Therefore three of the most essential problems which need to be addressed in order to efficiently utilize AM are also elaborated upon and reported in the paper.

The first of these problems is how to optimize the product-to-be. The second is to establish the orientation in which the product is to be manufactured during the AM process. The third is to find the best usage of the support material in the 3D printer, as there is no optimized process available for this activity. This is mainly due to the difficulties to foresee the waste of building material as, in most cases, this material can only be used once.

In this paper, a process for the design and development of new products is proposed. The application of the process also includes essential elements to assure an efficient use of AM as mentioned above. The process is established on the basis of an integration of the Biomimicry Design Spiral, Bionic Structures and Elements and optimization into the Engineering Design Process. The utilization of the process is demonstrated by an application and reported in the form of a modified engineering design process — the Engineering Design and Biomimicry Design Process or the EDBP process for short.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A018. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71009.

Today, with numerous advantages such as reduced sliding velocity and wear, higher transmission ratio, higher running efficiency etc., internal spur gears are used in several industrial applications. An internal gear is generated by pinion cutters towards inside of gear blank opposite of external gear. In this study, bending stress of internal spur gear with the asymmetric trochoid profile is investigated. Asymmetry is ensured by using pinion cutter has different tip radius value on its right and left side. This situation is allowed to use larger tip radius on one side. The limit value of tip radius is defined with taking into account cutter addendum height and interference possibility for the given pinion gear parameters. On the other side, asymmetry on the involute region is also examined. Firstly, a mathematical equation of pinion cutter is derived then points of internal gear are obtained by using coordinate transformation, differential geometry and gearing theory in MATLAB. Points of internal gear are exported to CATIA to realize the 3D design. Case studies are conducted for determining the relation between tip radius and pressure angle on bending stress separately with ANSYS program. According to preliminary results, using asymmetric trochoid profile reduces approximately 16% bending stress of internal spur gear.

Topics: Spur gears
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A019. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71155.

Following the trends of mass customization, globalization and environmental protection, new customer and legal requirements must be fulfilled in vehicle product development. The drivers named above often result in an increasingly complex product portfolio regarding the variance of components and mounting positions. Passenger cars and commercial vehicles are most affected by this, offering individualization in large quantity.

As a result, the Vehicle Concept Development Process (VCDP) is becoming inscrutable and inefficient, since common methods are not entirely adapted to the huge variety of requirements and therefore components. This paper introduces a new approach to the Vehicle Architecture Design phase of passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The current package process can be divided in three phases. Within the phase of the Vehicle Dimension Design (VDD), exterior dimensions and passengers’ positions are defined. During the Vehicle Architecture Design (VAD), the drivetrain- and vehicle architecture is developed. Followed by the Vehicle Package Design (VPD), all components, including hoses and wires, are integrated into the vehicle.

In a first step, the proposed approach integrates a combination of requirement and dependency management into the architecture design. It is necessary to get a transparent overview of the requirements and their dependencies at an early stage of concept development. To manage the variance of components and their mounting positions, all components to be considered during VAD must be distinguished and prioritized by their impact on the concept and the variance within the second step of the method. Their significance is assessed according to suitable criteria. Based on this selection, only a certain number of components is considered during the architecture design. Components not matching the criteria are shifted for integration during the package design. During the third step, creation of manageable architecture alternatives is assisted by the reduced number of components. Afterwards the concept alternatives are evaluated based on the level of similarities and standardization. Consequently, the transparency and efficiency is increased by the three steps of the new method for VAD.

Topics: Design , Vehicles
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A020. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71298.

This work describes the Axiomatic Design of a lifting system to be used during the assembly of various telescopic lift booms. The main function of the lifting system is to assist the workers during both the pre-assembly of the individual parts of a boom and also during the final assembly of a wide ranges of telescopic booms of telehandlers. Prior to the design of the lifting system the fundamental phase of data collection work is described in the paper. The company production process is analysed to detect the needs and design constraints impacting directly on the design stage. The preliminary design stage included: functional, ergonomic study of the lifting system and also considerations on the safety of operators during assembly.

The Axiomatic Design allows the designer to implement the Customer Needs into Functional Requirements and Design Parameters through a matrix description. So the product designer can recognize and properly transform Functional Requirements into Design Parameters during early stages of the design.

In the paper the development of this new lifting system is shown through Axiomatic Design method. The resulting modular lifting system and the principal results obtained will be described in terms of:

- reduction of assembly space on the “moving assembly chain” of the company,

- reduction of cycle time of the assembly of the boom using the new lifting system,

- improvement of ergonomic conditions of workers.

During the so called decoupling phase of Axiomatic Design, the Design Parameters of the lifting system are first determined and then hierarchically ordered. So the wasted time for typical trial and error process of advanced design stage is reduced because of this clear ordering.

The physical prototype of the new lifting system was already built and successfully used for the assembly on the industrial field.

Topics: Manufacturing , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A021. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71494.

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is not only an innovative approach of fabrication but it fosters a new paradigm to design products. The possibility to confer inhomogeneous properties to the product provides an important design key. This paper concerns the design and manufacture of medical devices that require a high level of customization. We focus the attention on lower limb prosthesis and in particular on the prosthetic socket. The proposed method is centered on the virtual modeling of patient’s residual limb and the virtual process is highly integrated and the data flow is as fluid as possible. Three main phases can be identified: design, validation and manufacture of the socket. Firstly, the technician uses the Socket Modeling Assistant (SMA) tool to design the socket shape. Then, a numerical simulation is run to check pressure distribution and validate the socket shape. Finally, a multi-material 3D printer is used to build the socket. Preliminary results are presented and conclusions are drawn concerning the challenge of multi-material 3D printing of the socket.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A022. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71597.

Data-driven analytics models have been built as critical components of a smart product to enable product autonomy and intelligence. Due in part to the dynamic nature of the machine-learning algorithms used in data-driven analytics models, the configuration of a smart product is frequently refined, often in a real-time context. Hence, a smart product requires a continuous evolution of its architecture.

This paper proposes a systematic method to facilitate the modularization of an analytics model architecture, so that a modular smart-product architecture can be achieved. Productizing an analytics model transforms conventional task-oriented data analytics activities into a data product development process. Issues related to the standardization of analytics models, the modular design approaches, the modularity quantification, and their impacts on the overall smart product design, are discussed. The proposed method is applied to an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) design so that a modular UAS architecture can be configured for various mission applications.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A023. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71740.

Polymer-derived ceramics (PDC), prepared through thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors, are piezo-resistive, high-temperature resistant, and corrosion resistant material. Due to their excellent thermomechanical and electromechanical (piezo-resistive) behavior with very large gauge factors, they have great potential in being used as sensing materials in harsh environment, and thus has received extensive attentions in recent years. A better understanding of their holistic thermomechanical and electromechanical properties is crucial to the improvement of both the material and corresponding sensor designs. However, there has been a lack of customized, low-cost, and automatic machine that allows researchers to study the complex properties of PDCs. In this paper, an automated platform is designed to study the electromechanical and thermomechanical properties of newly developed PDCs. Featured with automatic temperature control and pressure control capabilities, the platform is able to apply load smoothly from 0 N to 220 N, and add heat from 0 to 250°C.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Systems, Design, and Complexity: Systems and Complexity

2017;():V011T15A024. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70223.

Increasing demands on the productivity of complex systems, such as machine tools and their steadily growing technological importance will require the application of new methods in the product development process. This paper shows that the analysis of the simulation results from the simulation based mechatronic model of a complex system followed by a procedure that allows a better understanding of the dynamic behavior and interactions of the components. This paper will highlight the results of interaction between National Institute of Technology, (NITK) Surathkal, India and University of District of Columbia (UDC) in the area of Mechatronics and virtual testing. Mechatronics is a design philosophy, which is an integrating approach to engineering design. Through a mechanism of simulating interdisciplinary ideas and techniques, mechatronics provides ideal conditions to raise the synergy, thereby providing a catalytic effect for the new solutions to technically complex situations. Many real-world systems can be modeled by the mass-spring-damper system and hence considering one such system, namely Mechatronics Technology Demonstrator (MTD) is taken as the first example. MTD is a portable low cost, technology demonstrator that can be used for teaching mechatronics system design. The paper highlights design optimization of several mechatronic products using the procedures derived by the use of mass spring damper based mechatronic system. The second example is on web based virtual experimentation, where the experiment is conducted by remote triggering of Torsion Testing Machine. Remote triggered (RT) experimentation is a method of remotely controlling the laboratory equipment by an internet based system from a webpage. RT lab is an excellent way for the students to get access to expensive state of the art labs and equipment. The present work deals with the systematic approach of realizing a remote triggered experimentation on a horizontal torsional testing machine which can be triggered from a tablet PC or a laptop through an internet connection directed to the server computer system. RT lab algorithms are built in the server computer and the information and controls will be displayed on an html webpage where the experiment can be conducted. In this experiment the machine is remotely started through a command in the webpage which will be directed to the main server computer system from a wireless handheld internet enabled device such as laptops or tablet PCs and render the suitable graph of the experiment in the device. The experiment is completely in the control of the user. The person can either on/off the main equipment with the help of the device within the given slot of time and the data from the graph can be retrieved for further analysis. The first example uses a software platform of VisSim and the second example uses a software platform LabView. Although located in two different locations and countries, this paper examines the common mechatronics philosophy and the design approach used in modeling, simulation, optimization and virtual experimentation in building robust mechatronics product and procedures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A025. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70384.

Compressed earth blocks constructions are appropriate for the improvement of the housing conditions in poor contexts, in particular in developing countries. The blocks are produced using manually operated presses, preferably bidirectional. The bidirectional human powered presses currently available are mechanically complex, difficult to use and very expensive. In order to overcome these issues, the paper presents the concept and the design of a new bidirectional human powered press for compressed earth blocks, called Float-Ram. The press is characterized by: the adoption of a floating mold, which provides a bi-directional pressing action in simple way; an optimized kinematic structure, based on a cam-roller follower transmission system; a general mechanical simplicity, since the node of all kinematic pairs is constituted by a single shaft. The Float-Ram, tested on the laboratory and on the field, can be considered as an important media for the diffusion of high-quality raw earth building in developing countries.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A026. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70620.

There are several 3D printing technologies available, each offering unique benefits and drawbacks. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3D printing is an up and coming market that offers high resolution and high strength components, but is generally a more expensive process reserved for advanced applications. This paper presents the design and analysis of an affordable small-scale Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3D printer, designed to be produced and utilized be everyday consumers. The project management structure, the design process, and preliminary analysis are key features throughout. A continuation paper publication will regard the finished SLS printer, production process, experimentation, testing, and test results.

Topics: Lasers , Sintering , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A027. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-70881.

Many technical applications require accurate predictions of the thermodynamical state of the process fluid, which can be estimated from mathematical equations of state (EoS). Though the existing EoS are sufficiently accurate in the wide operating ranges for various technical fluids, they differ in terms of the complexity, and thus in computation costs. Therefore, for modeling and simulation of large technical systems, preferably simple and sufficiently accurate EoS are desired. The proposed approach presents a methodological support for the selection of appropriate EoS not only considering its accuracy but also its complexity. Furthermode, a cryogenic application involving nitrogen is used to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A028. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71205.

In most industrial product development projects, computer-based design analysis, or simply design analysis, is frequently utilized. Several design analysis process models exist in the literature for the planning, execution and follow-up of such design analysis tasks. Most of these process models deal explicitly with design analysis tasks within two specific contexts: the context of design evaluation, and the context of design optimization. There are, however, several more contexts within which design analysis tasks are executed. Originating from industrial practice, four contexts were found to represent a significant part of all design analysis tasks in industry. These are:

1. Explorative analysis, aiming at the determination of important design parameters associated with an existing or predefined design solution (of which design optimization is a part).

2. Evaluation, aiming at giving quantitative information on specific design parameters in support of further design decisions.

3. Physical testing, aiming at validating design analysis models through physical testing, that is, determining the degree to which models are accurate representations of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the models.

4. Method development, that is the development, verification and validation of specific guidelines, procedures or templates for the design analyst and/or the engineering designer to follow when performing a design analysis task.

A design analysis process model needs to be able to deal with at least these four. In this work, a process model named the generic design analysis (GDA) process model, is applied to these four contexts. The principles for the adaptation of the GDA process model to different contexts are described. The use of the GDA process model in these contexts is exemplified with industrial cases: explorative analysis of design parameters of a bumper beam system, the final physical acceptance tests of a device transportation system (collision test, drop test, vibration test), and the method development of a template for analyzing a valve in a combustion engine. The “Evaluation” context is not exemplified as it is the most common one in industry.

The GDA process model has been successfully used for the four contexts. Using the adaptation principles and industrial cases, the adaptation of the GDA process model to additional contexts is also possible.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A029. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-71829.

Along with increased digitalization, virtualization of processes and automation in industry, Industrial Internet of Things opens for new possible scenarios and business models. The opportunities of this technology rely, among the others, on new way for data and knowledge management. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) is greatly considered to support design activities related to digital technologies. The paper aims at analyzing the role of Industrial Internet of Things for supporting maintenance operations and evaluating whether the adoption of data structure and the integration with the KBE system can face the actual gaps and needs. After a brief overview of different technologies for knowledge management, a possible scenario has been identified. It represents the framework within IIoT technologies can be applied. This conceptual environment considers a multilevel structure: local facilities, the whole company, suppliers, retailers and global network have been involved into the analysis. Upon that scenario, how data and knowledge can be mapped and managed for each level have been investigated. Moreover, these data can be used to improve the predictive maintenance model as well as to enhance the design of new products through the acquisition and monitoring of an effective set of parameters. Finally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach with the use of simulation as well as physical devices, a prototypical application related to the maintenance of refrigerated display cabinets has been developed.

Topics: Maintenance
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A030. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72092.

This paper presents a new modeling approach called Progressive Modeling (PM) and demonstrates it by solving the Assembly Line Balancing Type I Problem. PM introduces some new concepts that make the modeling process of large-scale complex industrial problems more systematic and their solution algorithms much faster and easily maintained. In the context of SALBP-I, PM introduces a component model to deploy the problem logic and its solution algorithm into several interacting components. The problem is represented as an object-oriented graph G (V, E, W) of vertices, edges, and workstations which enables problem solutions to start anywhere. The novel representation relaxes the only forward and backward tracking approach used in the assembly line balancing literature. A set of well-reported problems in the literature are reported and solved. The paper concludes by demonstrating the efficiency of the new modeling approach and future extensions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A031. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72387.

In this study, we measured brain activity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) when a person was feeling discomfort caused by vibrations. We used the variance in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels as an evaluation index. Correlation coefficients were derived from the results of brain function measurements and sensibility evaluation of discomfort using a questionnaire. As a result, a high negative correlation was observed between discomfort and both vibration and brain activation around the medial prefrontal cortex, and a high positive correlation was observed between discomfort and both vibration and brain activation around the lateral prefrontal cortex. This suggests the possibility of evaluating discomfort on the basis of brain activation.

Topics: Vibration , Brain
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V011T15A032. doi:10.1115/IMECE2017-72497.

A tree may be the earliest multifunctional structure, and wood is the oldest known engineering material. Yet, trees have no place in engineering education. If we view a tree from merely a mechanical or civil engineering perspective, engineering mechanics can be learned from the tree’s example.

Trees have survived by adapting to the most difficult circumstances: heavy winds, rains, floods, droughts, earthquakes, mammal damage, human intervention, etc. The root system must be strong and flexible enough to support the tree’s entire structure from varying load conditions and to provide food storage and nutrient transfer. The stem system provides structural support for the tree’s above-the-ground parts and transfers water and nutrients from the roots through the network of thick-walled cells to other parts of the tree. Leaves produce food and form the surface area surrounding the tree. Leaves come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The tree’s crown, comprising branches, leaves, and reproductive elements, help the tree to catch more sunlight. It moves upward and outward to expose more of its leaves to direct sunlight for photosynthesis while maintaining physical balance on the earth.

A tree’s lifecycle can span hundreds of years, despite its vulnerability to constantly changing loads throughout the day and throughout its life. In monsoon and windy seasons, trees endure extremely difficult fatigue-loading. Various parts of the tree and its stem are subjected to combined loading conditions: tension, compression, shear, bending, and torsion. Trees develop and adapt stress management strategies by adjusting their shapes to the type or level of stress they endure: they add more mass where more strength is needed, allows material to easily break off (or physiologically inactive) from locations where it is not necessary, design optimum shapes, and create variable notch radii for reducing stress concentration. But a tree is much more than a structural member. It provides food and shelter for wildlife. It absorbs atmospheric carbon dioxide and produces oxygen. It lowers air temperature and facilitates the water cycle.

Structural analysis of a tree can benefit engineering students and practicing engineers alike. Furthermore, a deeper understanding of trees can help us to create multifunctional designs that are in a symbiotic relationship with other members in the system. In short, studying tree mechanics can help us to become better engineers.

This paper presents our efforts to integrate trees into engineering curricula to teach mechanics ranging from equilibrium study to stress analysis. Students of statics, dynamics, the strength of materials, stress analysis, material science, design, etc., can benefit from learning about trees. This approach enables students to understand the complexities of real-world living systems, appreciate the genius of nature’s design, and develop methods for creating sustainable designs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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