ASME Conference Presenter Attendance Policy and Archival Proceedings

2018;():V001T00A001. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-NS1.

This online compilation of papers from the ASME 2018 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS2018) represents the archival version of the Conference Proceedings. According to ASME’s conference presenter attendance policy, if a paper is not presented at the Conference by an author of the paper, the paper will not be published in the official archival Proceedings, which are registered with the Library of Congress and are submitted for abstracting and indexing. The paper also will not be published in The ASME Digital Collection and may not be cited as a published paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials

2018;():V001T01A001. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7911.

Localized reinforcement of composites employed to manufacture parts for the transport industries is making possible the lightweighting of components that have a much sought-after effect in the reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions. However, its realization, through the removing of mass where it is not required and reinforcement added to areas more prone to stress from working loads, relies on the development of novel manufacturing processes that can create structures whose performance is on a par with their solid counterparts, but at a fraction of the weight and at an affordable production cost.

In this work we exploit the use of a very weak and safe magnetic field to control the location and orientation of functionalized discontinuous carbon fibers within a polymeric structural (polyurethane) foam to create performance-optimized composites.

Two wet-chemistry methods (i.e. in-situ precipitation-deposition and amine-co-adjuvated electrodeposition of magnetite) to transform commercial carbon fiber into a magnetically active form were explored. The resulting fibers were analyzed and characterized through a set of physico-chemical tests. The functionalized fibers were then embedded at 3 different %vol contents in the polymeric matrix at given locations and with a desired alignment. Their mechanical performance (incl. compression, tension) was assessed and benchmarked against both a similar %volumetric content but non-functionalized-reinforcement (i.e. randomly distributed) composites and to non-reinforced matrices. In the two sets of reinforced composites (random and aligned) there is a positive correlation between stiffness, yield strength and strain with increasing %vol content. Both sets outperformed the non-reinforced matrix, demonstrating good fiber adhesion within the matrix and successful load transfer from matrix to fiber. The magnetically aligned composites generally outperformed the non-functionalized ones in terms of stiffness and strength at yield.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A002. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7934.

Continuous composite extrusion offers the possibility for manufacturing shape memory alloy metal matrix composites (SMA-MMC) with an actuator function. Due to an eccentric position of the SMA wires as well as the transformation stress caused by the suppressed shape memory effect, a bending moment can be generated during thermal activation. In this paper it is examined how the amount of necessary prestrain as well as the activation temperature influences the generated curvature of the specimens. The investigated actuator concept requires a sufficient bonding between matrix material and SMA wire to transfer the occurring stresses. For this reason, it is furthermore investigated how the process steps of stretching and subsequent thermal activation affect the quality of the bonding zone. Conventional NiTi wires (SM495) with a diameter of 1.5 mm are embedded in an aluminum AA6060 matrix for experimental investigation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A003. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7945.

Stretchable strain sensors with large strain range, high sensitivity, and excellent reliability are of great interest for applications in soft robotics, wearable devices, and structure-monitoring systems. Unlike conventional template lithography-based approaches, 3D-printing can be used to fabricate complex devices in a simple and cost-effective manner. In this paper, we report 3D-printed stretchable strain sensors that embeds a flexible conductive composite material in a hyper-plastic substrate. Three commercially available conductive filaments are explored, among which the conductive thermoplastic polyurethane (ETPU) shows the highest sensitivity (gauge factor of 5), with a working strain range of 0%–20%. The ETPU strain sensor exhibits an interesting behavior where the conductivity increases with the strain. In addition, an experiment for measuring the wind speed is conducted inside a wind tunnel, where the ETPU sensor shows sensitivity to the wind speed beyond 5.6 m/s.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A004. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7946.

Large stable ferroelectricity in hafnium zirconium oxide (HZO) solid solution ultrathin films (including pure zirconia (ZrO2) and hafnia (HfO2)) and ZrO2/HfO2 bilayer ultrathin films of thickness ranging from 5–12 nm, prepared by thermal atomic layer deposition or remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) has been demonstrated. Ferroelectric crystallization of the ZrO2 ultrathin film with high-pressure orthorhombic (o) space group Pbc21 could be achieved without post-annealing due to the plasma-induced thermal stresses experienced by the film during the RP-ALD process. In contrast, for the ZrO2/HfO2 bilayer ultrathin film, due to the high crystallization temperature of HfO2, post-annealing was needed to achieve sufficient confinement of the sandwiched HfO2 layer by the ZrO2 top layer and Si bottom substrate to promote the high-pressure ferroelectric o-phase in HfO2. The ferroelectric properties of the HZO ultrathin films prepared by RP-ALD were highly dependent on the Hf-to-Zr ratio — an increasing amount of HfO2 has been found to be detrimental to the ferroelectricity, mainly due to the high crystallization temperature of HfO2. Without post-annealing, the ferroelectricity of the HZO ultrathin films was governed by the relative amounts of the amorphous phase and the ferroelectric o-phase induced by the plasma treatment. While with post-annealing, the ferroelectricity was governed by the relative amounts of the ferroelectric o-phase and the non-ferroelectric monoclinic (m) phase.

Topics: Annealing , Zirconium
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A005. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7961.

The potential to utilize metamaterials concepts to realize smart composites with adaptive mechanical wave manipulation, energy harvesting, and structural health monitoring functionalities was investigated. A proof-of-concept metamaterials-inspired smart composite having CFRP face sheets bonded to additively manufactured polymer cores equipped with harvesting coils and sandwiching a chemically-etched multifunctional plate was fabricated. This plate consists of a periodic array of re-entrant cantilever beam resonators with center-loaded neodymium magnets, which acts as the multifunctional kernel. Experiments demonstrate isolation of a payload from mechanical disturbances within tunable frequency bands. Moreover, energy sequestered by resonators is harvested as useable electrical power. Using a coupled electromechanical harvesting model, predictions for multifunctional responses were obtained and correlated with experiments. The harvesting circuitry doubles as an active control system for the resonators as well as a sensing and monitoring system to detect structural defects. Both offline and online active control algorithms were investigated to reduce phase shift between harvesting coils, thereby improving the efficacy of the harvesting process. Potential applications include use as structural material for equipment or vehicles used in adverse or remote environments, where maximizing energy recovery and structural awareness in addition to payload isolation is desirable.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A006. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7966.

Nowadays, soft grippers, which use compliant mechanisms instead of stiff components to achieve grasping action, are being utilized in an increasing range of engineering fields, such as food industry, medical care and biological sample collection, for their material selection, high conformability and gentle contact with target objects compared to traditional stiff grippers. In this study, a three-fingered gripper is designed based on a simple actuation mechanism but with high conformability to the object and produces relatively high actuation force per unit mass. The electrostrictive PVDF-based terpolymer is applied as the self-folding actuation mechanism. Finite element analysis (FEA) models are developed to predict the deformation of the folded shape and grasping force of the gripper with two grasp modes, i.e. enveloping grasp and parallel grasp. The FEA models achieved good agreement with experiments. Design optimization is then formulated and a parametric design is conducted with objectives to maximize free deflection and blocked force of the gripper. The design variables are the thicknesses of the active and passive materials, and the nature of the passive layer. It is found that there exists an optimal terpolymer thickness for a given scotch tape substrate thickness to achieve maximum free deflection, and the blocked force always increases as either thickness of terpolymer or scotch tape increases. As the length of the notch increases, free deflection also increases due to more pronounced folding behavior of the actuator, but the blocked force decreases since the actuator is less stiff. The tradeoff between free deflection and blocked force is critical for the final decision on the optimal design for a particular application.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A007. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7973.

This work presents a first investigation of the small punch test (SPT) as a possible method to identify material parameters for shape memory alloy (SMA) behavior. In comparison to more common tests, the SPT has advantages in setup simplicity, small sample size, uncomplicated shape, and the possibility of specimen clamping, while offering controlled multi axial loading. Different loading scenarios are described and executed. The parameters of an established SMA model are subsequently (partially) calibrated from the measured SPT force-deflection curves. For some loading regimes, the effective response curves suggest the occurrence of damage events. To investigate the underlying microscale failure mechanisms, a first SEM study was conducted. These first results underline that the SPT is a promising efficient and inexpensive characterization method to support SMA constitutive model development under multiaxial loading — including aspects of damage, fracture and fatigue.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A008. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8002.

Additive manufacturing is an emerging method to produce customized parts with functional materials without big investments. As one of the common additive manufacturing methods, fused deposition modeling (FDM) uses thermoplastic-based feedstock. It has been recently adapted to fabricate composite materials too. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is the most widely used material as FDM feedstock. However, it is an electrically insulating polymer. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) on the other hand are highly conductive. They are attractive fillers because of their high aspect ratio, and excellent mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, a nanocomposite of these two materials can give an electrically conductive material that is potentially compatible with FDM printing.

This work focuses on the investigation of the relationships between the FDM process parameters and the electrical conductivity of the printed ABS/CNT nanocomposites. Nanocomposite filaments with CNT contents up to 10wt% were produced using a twin-screw extruder followed by 3D printing using FDM method. The starting material was pellets from a masterbatch containing 15 wt% CNT. Compression-molded samples of ABS/CNT were also prepared as the bulk baselines. The effects of CNT content and nozzle size on the through-layer and in-layer electrical conductivity of the printed nanocomposites were analyzed.

Overall, a higher percolation threshold was observed in the printed samples, compared to that of the compression-molded counterparts. This resulted in the conductivity of the printed samples that is at least one order of magnitude lower. Moreover, at CNT contents up to 5 wt%, the in-layer conductivity of the printed samples was almost two orders of magnitudes higher than that in the through-layer direction. In ABS/3 wt% CNT samples, the through-layer conductivity continuously decreased as the nozzle diameter was decreased from 0.8 mm to 0.35 mm. These variations in the electrical conductivity were explained in terms of the CNT alignment, caused by the extrusion process during the print, quality of interlayer bonding during deposition, and the voids created due to the discrete nature of the printing process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A009. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8004.

Among anode materials for lithium ion batteries, silicon (Si) in known for high theoretical capacity and low cost. Si exhibits over 300% volume change during cycling, potentially providing large displacement. In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and testing of a multifunctional NCM-Si battery that not only stores energy, but also utilizes the volume change of Si for actuation. The battery is transparent, thus allowing the visualization of the actuation process during cycling. This paper shows Si anode design that stores energy and actuates through volume change associated with lithium insertion. Experimental results from a transparent battery show that a Cu current collector single-side coated with Si nanoparticles can store 10.634 mWh (charge)/2.074mWh (discharge) energy and bend laterally with over 40% beam length displacement. The unloaded anode is found to remain circular shape during cycling. Using a unimorph cantilever model, the Si coating layer actuation strain is estimated to be 30% at 100% SOC.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A010. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8016.

Liquid crystalline (LC) behaviors of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), derived from wood, cotton or other cellulose-based biopolymers, have been actively investigated due to their unique optical properties and their superb mechanical properties, which open up potential applications in bioelectronics and biomedical engineering. In particular, many attempts have been made to control phase and orientation of LC-CNCs because they are critical factors deciding optical and mechanical properties, and electromechanical performances. Through the applications of mechanical force, electric field and magnetic field, some degree of success has been achieved; however, realizing homogeneous arrangements of CNCs that can be exploited at the macroscale is still elusive, owing to a variety of intermolecular interactions. The characterizations of the LC phase and orientation of CNCs are also challenging due to their complex biological structures. In this report, we introduce approaches to control the phase and orientation of LC-CNCs through the self-assembly, mechanical force and electric field. The liquid crystalline behaviors of CNCs in polar solvents and at the air/water interface are discussed. Translational and rotational behaviors of CNCs under DC electric field are also investigated as a function of their surface charge and dipole moment. In addition, we introduce a nonlinear optical process, namely, sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, for the structural characterization of LC-CNCs. Using SFG, we can analyze not only crystal phase and structure, but also polar ordering of CNCs which plays a key role in determining their electromechanical performances. Development of cellulose-based smart materials will expand the spectrum of available functional materials that are lightweight, flexible, mechanically tough, and thermally stable at moderately high temperatures (up to 300°C).

Topics: Nanocrystals
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A011. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8033.

This study aims to investigate the influence of temperature on the linear and nonlinear rheological behavior of a MR fluid, MRF 132DG, using a rotational rheometer. The experiments were designed to obtain properties of the fluid under oscillatory shear strain in the amplitude and frequency sweep modes, while maintaining different constant temperatures (−5, 0, 20 and 50 °C). The data were used to evaluate the storage and loss moduli under different levels of magnetic flux density considering the linear as well as nonlinear viscoelastic regions. The critical strain amplitudes were further obtained. Results showed enhanced linear viscoelastic region with increasing magnetic field density. Moreover, the effects of temperature and magnetic field on the frequency dependency of the fluid properties are illustrated for small and large amplitudes of shear strains.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A012. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8046.

The demand for clean and sustainable energy sources continuously increases. One of the promising ways to provide electrical power is using fuel cells. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) represents the most common type of fuel cells. However, PEMFCs have not yet been fully commercialized because of the high cost and low performance. A main part of PEMFC, which significantly contributes to the cost and weight is the bipolar plate (BPP). The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recommended some physical properties for BPP for sustainable commercialization of PEMFC. Those set properties have yet to be met. Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) use conductive fillers such as carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon fiber (CF), and graphite (Gr) to impart electrical and thermal conductivities and can potentially provide an optimum combination of weight, cost, mechanical properties and conductivity characteristics for BPPs.

In the current work, CPCs of polycarbonate (PC) filled with singular filler of CNT, binary fillers of CNT and CF and ternary fillers of CNT, CF and Gr were fabricated using melt mixing method followed by compression molding. The through-plane and in-plane electrical conductivities of the CPCs were investigated. The results showed that the electrical percolation thresholds for the PC-CNT is ∼1 wt. % CNT in both the through-plane and in-plane directions. Addition of 3 wt. % CNT to PC composites with 10 - 30 wt. % CF improved the conductivity performance. It was noticed increasing CF content from 20 to 30 wt. % did not yield a big change in conductivity, so that at 20 wt. % CF, the through-plane and in-plane electrical conductivities are 0.11 S.cm−1 and 6.4 S.cm−1 respectively. Moreover, using 20 wt. % CF will allow for higher loading of graphite. To further enhance the conductivities towards the DOE recommendations, 30 wt. % Gr was introduced to the PC composite with binary filler (i.e., 3 wt. % CNT and 20 wt. % CF). The results showed that the through-plane and in-plane electrical conductivities were increased to 1.5 S.cm−1 and 13.5 S.cm−1, respectively. These properties recommend a potential application of polycarbonate based CPCs for BPP manufacturing.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A013. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8058.

This article illustrates an approach to develop innovative smart materials based on carbon fiber composites. The proposed approach relies on the use of ultra-light strain sensors that are embedded into the composite and are adopted to monitor in real-time the actual material configuration. Such sensors are composed of electrospun PVDF fibers that exploit piezoelectricity to identify strain and thanks to their extreme lightweight can easily be embedded within the composite layers without affecting the structural integrity. On the other hand, the composite is equipped with a system of internal distributed heaters that can locally and globally vary the composite temperature. Since the adopted epoxy has a considerable temperature-dependent behaviour, it is possible to control its stiffness and thus to control the structural frequencies and damping. By coupling the sensing system with the control system, the structural properties are tuned to match prescribed working conditions, thus optimizing the performance of the proposed smart system. The proposed approach is investigated experimentally by manufacturing prototypes of the smart composite and by performing multiple tests to study the material response and evaluate the obtained performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A014. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8062.

Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have the same chemical structures as carbon nanotubes but their internal structure consists of multiple layers of graphene with thicknesses of only a few nanometers. Due to their increased thickness, GNPs are less prone to agglomeration and entanglement when they are used as nanofillers in composite materials. Although it has been shown that self-sensing cementitious composites can be fabricated using GNPs, further studies are needed to reveal effect of various factors on the performance of such composites. Here, a fabrication method that mainly employs polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers together with high-speed shear mixing to disperse GNPs in cement composites is used to prepare GNP-reinforced mortar composites. The molecular structure of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer can considerably affect the performance of GNP-cement composites. Therefore, two commercially available polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers that possess varying backbone and side-chain lengths are systematically incorporated to prepare GNP-reinforced multifunctional composites. In addition, the effects of mixing durations on the electrical properties of the developed composites are assessed. Another essential challenge in the development of multifunctional cement composites is to improve the interfacial interaction between GNPs and the hydration products of cement such as calcium-silicate-hydrates (CSH). Here, incorporation of supplementary materials such as silica fume into the matrix is studied to improve the bond between a cementitious matrix and nano reinforcement. The bulk resistivity of the mortar specimens is measured using the four-probe measurement method. The piezoresistive behavior and sensing ability of the GNP-reinforced mortar composites are investigated through compressive tests at quasi-static.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A015. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8066.

In this work, the arising of stick-slip dissipation as well as the global mechanical response of carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite films are tailored by exploiting a three-phase nanocomposite. The three phases are represented by the CNTs, a polymer coating localized on the CNTs surface and a hosting matrix. In particular, a polystyrene (PS) layer coats multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) that are randomly dispersed in a polyimide (PI) matrix. The coating phase is strongly bonded to the CNTs outer sidewalls ensuring the effectiveness of the load transfer mechanism and reducing the material damping capacity. The coating phase can be thermally-activated to modify, and in particular, decrease the CNT-matrix interfacial shear strength (ISS) thus facilitating the stick-slip onset in the nanocomposite. The ISS decrease finds its roots in a partial degradation of the coating phase and, in particular, in the formation of voids. By weakening the CNT/polymer interfacial region, a significant enhancement in the material damping capacity is observed. An extensive experimental campaign consisting of monotonic and cyclic tensile tests proved the effectiveness of this novel multi-phase material design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A016. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8080.

The orientation and spatial distribution of magnetic particles in smart mechano-magnetic composites are key to enhancing their actuation capability. In this study, we present a new experimental approach to tune the orientation and assembly of barium hexaferrite (BHF) micro-platelets in liquid polymers by applying uniform magnetic and alternating current (AC)-electric fields. First, we investigated the assembly of BHFs under different electric field amplitudes and frequencies in the silicone elastomer. After establishing the optimum parameters for electric and magnetic alignment, four different microstructures are fabricated namely (a) random (b) electrically aligned (c) magnetically aligned and (d) simultaneously electrically and magnetically aligned. Finally, microstructural and property characterizations are performed using OM, XRD, SEM, and VSM measurements. Our findings demonstrate that a variety of microstructures can be obtained depending on the nature of the applied external field: in the absence of any field, BHF platelets are organized as small stacks, owing to their intrinsic magnetic polarization. In contrast, application of an electric field creates chain-like structures where the orientation of the BHF stacks inside the chains is random. Application of a magnetic field enhances rotation of the BHF stacks, which are found to rotate inside the chain in directions dictated by the magnetic field. Finally, by applying simultaneous electric and magnetic fields while also tuning the processing parameters, BHF-composite film with a squareness ratio of 0.92 is obtained. In order to further extend the actuation capability of resulting composites, we will also experiment with electroactive polymer matrices such as P(VDF–TrFE–CTFE) terpolymer to fabricate a multiferroic material that can actuate under both electric and magnetic field.

Topics: Platelets
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A017. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8093.

Development of nanostructured devices for sensing, energy storage, actuating, and energy harvesting has attracted many researchers. The most common type of functional nanostructures is piezoelectric nanomaterials. Regardless of numerous studies in this area, there is a need for rapid fabrication of nanostructured devices, or simply functional nanocomposites. Here we present a simple, scalable fabrication technique for additive manufacturing of nanocomposite energy harvesting devices composed of barium titanate nanowires. Details on hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanowires and printable inks, manufacturing process, and energy harvesting performance of the printed devices are presented here. The experimental results suggest that additive manufacturing of functional nanocomposites allows controlling the microstructures and enhancing device performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A018. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8097.

Additive manufacturing has emerged as an alternative to traditional manufacturing technologies. In particular, industries like fluid power, aviation and robotics have the potential to benefit greatly from this technology, due to the design flexibility, weight reduction and compact size that can be achieved. In this work, the design process and advantages of using 3D printing to make soft linear actuators were studied and highlighted. This work explored the limitations of current additive manufacturing tolerances to fabricate a typical piston-cylinder assembly, and how enclosed bellow actuators could be used to overcome high leakage and friction issues experienced with a piston-cylinder type actuator. To do that, different 3D printing technologies were studied and evaluated (stereolithorgraphy and fused deposition modeling) in the pursuit of high-fidelity, cost-effective 3D printing. The initial attempt consisted of printing the soft actuators directly using flexible materials in a stereolithography-type 3D printer. However, these actuators showed low durability and poor performance. The lack of a reliable resin resulted in the replacement of this material by EcoFlex® 00-30 silicone and the use of a 3D printed mold to cast the actuators. These molds included a 3-D printed dissolvable core inside the cast actuator in order to finish the manufacturing process in one single step. An experimental setup to evaluate the capabilities of these actuators was developed. Results are shown to assess the steady-state and the dynamic characteristics of these actuators. These tests resulted into the stroke-pressure and stroke-time responses for a specific load given different proportional valve inputs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A019. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8118.

There have been various theoretical studies done on anisotropic neo-Hookean models; however, there have been limited experimental validations of these theories. In this study, a silicone/silicone laminate with a fiber volume fraction of 18% has been parameterized. Conventional neo-Hookean models have been modified for compressible in-plane deformations. Two-dimensional deformation limitations and a compressible constraint have been discussed. Material parameters have been calculated for three different anisotropic, neo-Hookean models from the literature.

Topics: Solids , Fibers
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A020. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8209.

Static and dynamic properties of six magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) with iron particles volume fraction ranging from 12.5% to 40% were experimentally characterized under shear mode operation. The experiments were designed on the basis of standardized methods defined in ISO-1827 and ISO-4664. The static shear stress-shear strain data obtained under strains up to 30% were used to quantify absolute and relative MR effects of the MREs as functions of magnetic flux density in the 0 to 450 mT range. The MRE specimen with highest iron particles fraction and a softening agent revealed greatest MR effect. The dynamic characteristics of this MRE specimen were then evaluated under harmonic excitations in the 0.1–50 Hz frequency range with shear strain amplitude and magnetic flux density ranging from 2.5 to 20%, and 0 to 450 mT, respectively. The data were then utilized to evaluate elastic and loss shear moduli of the specimen.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A021. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8215.

Multi-layered, self-actuated devices have been the focus of recent studies due to their ability to exhibit large displacements and achieve complex shapes. Such devices have been constructed using active materials responsive to varying stimuli including electro-active and magneto-active materials to perform useful functions or satisfy objective functions related to target shapes. In this work, the authors seek to study the utility of employing materials responsive to magnetic and electric fields in combination with passive materials, and with varied placement in discrete layers and segments through a flexible beam, to design structures capable of satisfying a variety of objective functions simultaneously. These multi-field responsive composite devices, with greater complexity of the embedded combined actuation mechanisms, are able to achieve a wider variety of target shapes compared to traditional unimorph/bimorph structures actuated by a single-field. Additionally, the increased actuation design space facilitates consideration of a wider range of possible objective functions including those related to power consumption, materials’ cost, and work performed.

Fabrication of these devices for experimentation is both time-consuming and expensive. As a result, this study will utilize an existing one-dimensional model for electromagnetically-actuated composites and expand its features to include segmentation: the arbitrary placement of any active or passive material type in any layer of a given arbitrarily-sized section of the beam. Ultimately, the goal of this study is to analyze the model by varying characteristic features of multi-field actuated, multi-layered, and segmented devices undergoing large displacements under simultaneously applied fields.

Although the model is written arbitrarily for any number of segments, layers within segments, and material types, this study focuses on a base model comprising three material types: electroactive polymer, magneto-active elastomer, and a passive substrate. The initial parameters chosen for the study are the relative lengths (length ratio) of segments, volume of magnetic material, and stiffness of passive material. Two objective functions are chosen. The first is a target shape approximation function, dependent on the errors between the displacements of the computed and the desired shapes. The second calculates a cost based on volume of magnetic material. The effects of the parameters on the objective functions are analyzed by evaluating an array of combinations of parameters; results indicate that each parameter significantly influences the multi-field actuation of the beam, and these correlations are quantitatively analyzed and compared. Concurrently, metrics of power required, structure mass, and other important factors are quantified. As a result, this analysis serves as a precursor to a formal optimization algorithm by determining the usefulness of the chosen objective functions and corresponding input variables for these devices, while also identifying other possible metrics for the design optimization of a multi-field beam.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T01A022. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8250.

There has been increasing focus in the area of in-situ structural health monitoring since the advent of embedded nano-composites. This experimental research investigates the structural health monitoring abilities of polymer bonded energetics embedded with a uniformly dispersed but randomly oriented carbon nanotube (CNT) sensing network within the polymer binder. A common formulation of the recent solid propellants consists of ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer) and aluminum powder (combustive fuel)-often shaped using a polymer binder, rather than the older techniques of power pressing. Since this study focuses on the structural health of the material and not its thermal properties, monoclinic sugar crystals were used as a substitute for ammonium perchlorate as it has very similar mechanical properties and is much safer in terms of material handling. Thus, a combination of sugar crystals and aluminum powder bound by a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder is fabricated in varying concentrations to simulate actual solid rocket propellants. The main focus of this study lies in characterizing the mechanical and electrical properties of the CNT embedded energetic material through subjecting it under mechanical loads; followed by a detailed observation and study of the real time electro-mechanical response under tension and compression. The addition of carbon nanotubes to the polymer binder, thus translates to a real time sensing technique for detection of multi-scale damage in polymer bonded energetics. The results of this study aim to establish a proof of concept for CNT embedded structural health monitoring systems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Adaptive Systems

2018;():V001T03A001. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7915.

The aerodynamic foil bearing is a special type of air bearing in which the flexible foil structure between rotor and rigid housing supports the rotor bearing system with a greater robustness against thermal distortion and production misalignments. In such bearings, the generation of an aerodynamic pressure in the lubricating film after reaching the lift-off speed prevents the solid contact between rotor and foil structure. Since many static and dynamic properties of air foil bearings strongly depend on the inner contour of the bearing, the idea of an adaptive air foil bearing (AAFB) is developed to optimize the bearing’s performance at different operating points. This paper concentrates on a semi-analytical model based on plate theory using Ritz method for simulating the static shape control of piezoelectrically actuatable supporting segments for an AAFB under different loading conditions. The elastic suspension of the supporting segments and symmetries of the bearing are considered in the modeling. After validation by means of FEM analyses and experimental tests the influence of geometry and material is examined in a parametric study. Later on, the model is used for parameter optimization in order to achieve the most effective shape morphing.

Topics: Shapes , Foil bearings
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A002. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7919.

Although there have been numerous efforts into harnessing the snap through dynamics of bistable structures with piezoelectric transducers to achieve large energy conversion, these same dynamics are undesirable under morphing applications where stationary control of the structure’s configuration is paramount. To suppress cross-well vibrations that primarily result from periodic excitation at low frequencies, a novel control strategy is proposed and implemented on the piezoelectrically generated bistable laminate, which consists of only Macro Fiber Composites (MFC) in a [0MFC/90MFC]T layup. While under cross-well regimes such as chaotic or limit cycle oscillations, a single MFC is actuated past the laminate’s limit voltage to eliminate one of its potential wells and force it into the remaining stable state. Simultaneously, a Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controller suppresses the resulting single-well oscillations through the other MFC. This dual control strategy is demonstrated with an electromechanical model through the suppression of various cross-well regimes, and results in significant reduction of amplitude. The active control capability of the laminate prevents snap through instability when under large enough external vibrations and adds to its multifunctionality along with morphing and broadband energy harvesting.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A003. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7924.

In this paper, we present a piezoelectric metamaterial integrated with bistable circuits to realize adaptive non-reciprocal elastic wave transmission. Dynamics of the bistable circuit and the piezoelectric metamaterial are investigated numerically to analyze the wave transmission characteristics of the proposed system. Results reveal that when the excitation amplitude exceeds certain threshold, wave energy is able to propagate even with excitation frequency inside the local-resonance bandgap of the piezoelectric metamaterial. This bandgap transmission phenomenon is also known as supratransmission. It is shown that by introducing spatial asymmetry, the system could exhibit different supratransmission thresholds when it is actuated in opposite directions, and hence there exists an excitation range within which wave energy is only able to propagate in one direction. Furthermore, this excitation range to facilitate non-reciprocal energy transmission is adaptable by adjusting the stable equilibria of the bistable circuits, which can be conveniently tuned utilizing only DC voltage sources. Additionally, it is shown that by adjusting the stable equilibria, the wave propagation direction, analogous to the forward direction of an electrical diode, can be easily reversed. Lastly, in contrast to many nonlinearity enabled non-reciprocal systems, the proposed system is able to realize non-reciprocal elastic energy transmission with majority of the transmitted energy preserved at the original input frequency. Overall, these results illustrate a new means of utilizing nonlinear piezoelectric metamaterial to manipulate elastic wave transmission.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A004. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7933.

A new passive damper coupling the energy dissipative mechanisms of dry friction and piezoelectric shunting circuit is proposed. The idea is to embed the shunted piezoelectric materials to the dry friction dampers at appropriate positions, so that the elastic deformation of the dry friction dampers can be utilized to generate additional damping. Moreover, this provides a more practical way to install the piezoelectric dampers into realistic mechanical systems such as aero-engines. A five Degree-of-freedom (DOFs) lumped system model is introduced to demonstrate the feasibility of such an idea. The damping performance is revealed using the forced response results obtained by the Multi Harmonic Balance Method (MHBM). We show that the coupled damper significantly outperforms the standalone piezoelectric or dry friction dampers. The coupled damper is better than, at least equivalent to, the case where both piezoelectric and dry friction dampers are applied but in uncoupled manner. Eventually, the mechanism of the proposed damper is further explained from the perspective of vibrational mode and energy conversion.

Topics: Friction , Dampers
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A005. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7948.

In this paper, we investigate the coupled band gaps created by the locking phenomenon between the electrical and flexural waves in piezoelectric composite plates. To do that, the distributed piezoelectric materials should be interconnected via a ‘global’ electric network rather than the respective ‘local’ impedance. Once the uncoupled electrical wave has the same wavelength and opposite group velocity as the uncoupled flexural wave, the desired coupled band gap emerges. The Wave Finite Element Method (WFEM) is used to investigate the evolution of the coupled band gap with respect to propagation direction and electric parameters. Further, the bandwidth and directionality of the coupled band gap are compared with the LR and Bragg gaps. An indicator termed ratio of single wave (RSW) is proposed to determine the effective band gap for a given deformation (electric, flexural, etc.). We show that the coupled band gap, despite directional, can be much wider than the LR gap with the same overall inductance. This might lead to an alternative to create sub-wavelength band gaps.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A006. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7978.

In the present article, we focus on the forced vibration and control analysis of functionally graded (FG) graphene-polymer composites bonded with piezoelectric layers considering strong electric fields. Different non-uniform gradient distributions of graphene platelets (GPLs) are assumed through the thickness direction. The Modified Halpin-Tsai micromechanics model is used to obtain the effective material properties of GPL/polymer composites. Electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric layers is described by two rotationally invariant non-linear constitutive relations. A four-node shell element considering transverse shear effect based on the Reissner-Mindlins hypothesis has been developed for forced vibration and control analysis of smart FG-GPL/composites using the principle of virtual work considering nonlinear material law for the piezoelectric layers. The developed element is verified and compared with the numerical results those available in the literature. Different configurations of FG-GPL composite shells have been analysed and discussed to compare in terms of settling time, first resonance frequency and absolute amplitude corresponding to first resonant frequency by carrying out time and frequency response analysis, and the effects of weight fraction of GPLs on vibration response of such shell structures are also discussed. The influence of electromechanical nonlinear constitutive relations is also presented and discussed by performing active control analysis on different FG-GPL composite shell structures. Moreover, the results show that the GPL distribution and weight-fraction of GPLs have a significant effect on the vibration and damping characteristics of the FG-GPL composite shell structures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A007. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7981.

This paper aims at highlighting the fabrication procedures and proof-of-concept tests of a Kirigami inspired multi-stable composite laminate. Bistable composites consisting of asymmetric fiber layout have shown great potentials for shape morphing and energy harvesting applications. However, a patch of such a bistable composite is limited to very simple deformation when being snapped between its two stable equilibria (or states). To address this issue, this study investigates the idea of utilizing Kirigami, the ancient art of paper cutting, into the design and fabrication of bistable composite laminates. Via combining multiple patches of laminates and cutting according to prescribed Kirigami pattern, one can create a structure with multiple stable states and sophisticated deformation paths between them. This can significantly expand the application potentials of the multi-stable composites. This paper details the fabrication procedures for an elementary unit cell in the envisioned Kirigami composite and the results of proof-of-concept experiments, which measure the force required to switch the Kirigami composite between its different stable states. Preliminary results confirm that the Kirigami unit cell possesses multiple stable states depending on the underlying fiber layout. Each patch in the Kirigami composite could be snapped independently between stable states without triggering any undesired snapping in other patches. Moreover, a transient propagation of curvature change is observed when a patch in the Kirigami composite is snapped between its stable states. Such a phenomenon has not been reported in the bistable composite studies before. Results of this paper indicate that Kirigami is a powerful approach for designing and fabricating multi-stable composites with a strong appeal for morphing and adaptive systems. This paper highlights the feasibility and novelty of combining Kirigami art and bistable adaptive composites.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A008. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8015.

Artificial and synthetic skins are widely used in the medical field; used in applications ranging from skin grafts to suture training pads. There is a growing need for artificial skins with tunable properties. However, current artificial skins do not take into account the variability of mechanical properties between individual humans as well as the age-dependent properties of human skin. Furthermore, there has been little development in artificial skins based on these properties. Thus, the primary purpose of this research is to develop variable stiffness artificial skin samples using magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) whose properties that can be controlled using external magnetic fields. In this study, multiple MRE skin samples were fabricated with varying filler particle volume contents. Using a precision dynamic mechanical analyzer, a series of indenting experiments were performed on the samples to characterize their mechanical properties. The samples were tested using a spherical indenter that indented a total depth of 1 mm with a speed of 0.01 mm/s and unloaded at the same rate. The results show that the modulus or stiffness increases significantly as the iron percent (w/w) in the sample increases. Additionally, the stiffness of the sample increases proportional to the intensity of the applied external magnetic field. To assess the MRE samples’ variability of properties, the testing results were compared with in vivo human skin testing data. The results show the MRE samples are feasible to represent the age-dependent stiffness demonstrated in in vivo human skin testing. The MRE materials studied will be further studied as a variable-stiffness skin model in medical devices, such as radial pulse simulators.

Topics: Elastomers , Skin
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A009. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8017.

The main goal of this study is the optimization of vibration reduction on helicopter blade by using macro fiber composite (MFC) actuator under pressure loading. Due to unsteady aerodynamic conditions, vibration occurs mainly on the rotor blade during forward flight and hover. High level of vibration effects fatigue life of components, flight envelope, pleasant for passengers and crew. In this study, the vibration reduction phenomenon on helicopter blade is investigated. 3D helicopter blade model is used to perform the aeroelastic behavior of a helicopter blade. Blade design is created by Spaceclaim and finite element analysis is conducted by ANSYS 19.0. Generated model are solved via Fluent by using two-way fluid-solid coupling analysis, then the analyzed results (all aerodynamic loads) are directly transferred to the structural model. Mechanical results (displacement etc.) are also handed over to the Fluent analysis by helping fluid-structure interaction interface. Modal and harmonic analysis are performed after FSI analysis. Shark 120 unmanned helicopter blade model is used with NACA 23012 airfoil. The baseline of the blade structure consists of D spar made of unidirectional Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer +45°/−45° GFRP skin. MFC, which was developed by NASA’s Langley Research Center for the shaping of aerospace structures, is applied on both upper and lower surfaces of the blade to reduce the amplitude in the twist mode resonant frequency. D33 effect is important for elongation and to observe twist motion. To foresee the behavior of the MFC, thermo-elasticity analogy approach is applied to the model. Therefore, piezoelectric voltage actuation is applied as a temperature change on ANSYS. The thermal analogy is validated by using static behavior of cantilever beam with distributed induced strain actuators. Results for cantilever beam are compared to experimental results and ADINA code results existing in the literature. The effects of fiber orientation of MFC actuator and applied voltage on vibration reduction on helicopter blade are represented. The study shows that torsion mode determines the optimum placement of actuators. Fiber orientation of the MFC has few and limited influences on results. Additionally, the voltage applied on MFC has strong effects on the results and they must be selected according to applied model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A010. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8025.

In this paper, an hybrid mass dampers (HMD) and its control law are studied. Based on a optimal tuned mass damper (TMD), it is a one degree of freedom (dof) mass-spring system associated with an electromagnetic system. The passive damping is provided by the coil-magnet combination coupled with a tunable load. The passive resonator has been modify to become “dual”, a second coil-magnet combination has been had on the same dof to create an active part. The control law is a modified velocity feedback with phase compensator. The proposed hybrid system controller is hyperstable and ensure a fail-safe behavior. The HMD is experimentally tested at 1:1 scale. It is carried out on a main structure suspended by flexible blades. The numerical model, with experimental parameters identification, provides good results. Under shock disturbance, experimental results show the ability of this system to react quickly and dissipate energy in comparison with the passive one.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A011. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8027.

We propose an improved micro reactor design for a scalable microfluidic device, in which enzymes are immobilized in a hydrogel matrix. Furthermore, fluid flow is controlled by means of hydrogel-based micro-valves. In this work, computational flow simulations will be compared to experimental results to highlight new design ideas and to improve wetting and concentration distribution through the entire chamber volume, even for high aspect ratios. Additionally, modelling concepts will be introduced to efficiently describe multi-domain problems like enzyme reactions.

With the help of a computer-aided design process which is capable to simulate hydrogel-based microfluidic systems it is possible to better understand, predict and visualize the behavior of micro-reactors and support the development of highly integrated hydrogel-based microfluidic circuits.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A012. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8040.

An origami design pattern is integrated to an active control system through camber morphing for vibration suppression and gust load alleviation in a typical wing section. Origami design parameters are optimized to have high sensitivity in chordwise fold angle and a maximum camber of 10% chord. A LQR controller is used to achieve the desired vibration suppression in a lightly damped aeroelastic system. The desired vibration suppression is achieved with change in camber of below 5% chord for an initial displacement condition induced vibration and less than 1% chord for gust excited vibration. Results also show that camber morphing is effective in suppressing vibration in both pitch and plunge degrees of freedom simultaneously.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A013. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8053.

Industrial robots are commonly designed to be very fast and stiff in order to achieve extremely precise position control capabilities. Nonetheless, high speeds and power do not allow for a safe physical interaction between robots and humans. With the exception of the latest generation lightweight arms, purposely design for human-robot collaborative tasks, safety devices shall be employed when workers enter the robots workspace, in order to reduce the chances of injuries. In this context, Variable Stiffness Actuators (VSA) potentially represent an effective solution for increasing robot safety. In light of this consideration, the present paper describes the design optimization of a VSA architecture previously proposed by the authors. In this novel embodiment, the VSA can achieve stiffness modulation via the use of a pair of compliant mechanisms with distributed compliance, which act as nonlinear springs with proper torque-deflection characteristic. Such elastic elements are composed of slender beams whose neutral axis is described by a spline curve with non-trivial shape. The beam geometry is determined by leveraging on a CAD/CAE framework allowing for the shape optimization of complex flexures. The design method makes use of the modeling and simulation capabilities of a parametric CAD software seamlessly connected to a FEM tool (i.e. Ansys Workbench). For validation purposes, proof-concept 3D printed prototypes of both non-linear elastic element and overall VSA are finally produced and tested. Experimental results fully confirm that the compliant mechanism behaves as expected.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A014. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8065.

Subordinate Oscillator Arrays (SOAs) have been shown to be effective methods for band-limited vibration attenuation. However, SOAs are very sensitive to error in parameter distributions. Slight disorder in structural parameters can render an SOA ineffective. Recent research has shown that Piezoelectric SOAs (PSOAs) provide an alternative that can limit the degradation of the frequency response function due to the disorder. The capacitive shunts attached to such SOAs can be tuned to change overall electromechanical properties of the SOA post-fabrication. The conventional methods of tuning, which study the Frequency Response Function (FRF) of each oscillator in the array, can be an extremely time-consuming process. To apply a systematic approach to tuning, an estimate of the disorder in structural property distributions can be crucial. In this paper, we discuss a simple and effective methodology to estimate the actual structural parameters and subsequently tune the PSOA to ameliorate the effect of disorder. We derive an adaptive estimation technique for PSOAs and present numerical results that demonstrate improved vibration attenuation of this approach.

Topics: Errors
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A015. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8075.

A new analytical model is proposed for superelastic helical SMA springs subjected to axial loading. The model is derived based on the ZM constitutive model for SMAs and is applicable to springs with index greater than 4 and pitch angle greater than 15°, which are common specifications in engineering applications. The analytical axial force-deformation relation for the helical spring is derived taking into account phase transformation within the SMA and the model is validated against 3D finite element analysis results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A016. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8076.

Based on the ZM model for shape memory alloys, an analytical model is derived for a functionally graded material (FGM)/shape memory alloy (SMA) laminated composite cantilever beam subjected to concentrated force at the tip. The beam consists of a SMA core layer bonded to identical FGM layers on both sides. The FGM layer is considered to be elastic with an equivalent Young’s modulus related to those of the constituents by means of a power law. Phase transformation within the SMA layer is accounted for in deriving the analytical relations, which are validated against finite element analysis results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A017. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8079.

Exploiting mechanical instabilities and elastic nonlinearities is an emerging means for designing deployable structures. This methodology is applied here to investigate and tailor a morphing component used to reduce airframe noise, known as a slat-cove filler (SCF). The vortices in the cove between the leading edge slat and the main wing are among the important sources of airframe noise. The concept of an SCF was proposed in previous works as an effective means of mitigating slat noise by directing the airflow along an acoustically favorable path. A desirable SCF configuration is one that minimizes: (i) the energy required for deployment through a snap-through event; (ii) the severity of the snap-through event, as measured by kinetic energy, and (iii) mass. Additionally, the SCF must withstand cyclical fatigue stresses and displacement constraints. Both composite and shape memory alloy (SMA)-based SCFs are considered during approach and landing maneuvers because the deformation incurred in some regions may not demand the high strain recoverable capabilities of SMA materials. Nonlinear structural analyses of the dynamic behavior of a composite SCF are compared with analyses of similarly tailored SMA-based SCF and a reference, uniformly thick superelastic SMA-based SCF. Results show that by exploiting elastic nonlinearities, both the tailored composite and SMA designs decrease the required actuation energy compared to the uniformly thick SMA. Additionally, the choice of composite material facilitates a considerable weight reduction where the deformation requirement permits its use. Finally, the structural behavior of the SCF designs in flow are investigated by means of preliminary fluid-structure interaction analysis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A018. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8094.

Various researchers have investigated the behavior of a linear mechanical oscillator weakly coupled to a nonlinear mechanical attachment that has essential stiffness nonlinearity. Under certain conditions, the essentially nonlinear attachment acts as a nonlinear energy sink (NES) and one-way energy transfer from the main structure to the attachment can be achieved. Since an essentially nonlinear attachment does not possess any preferential resonance frequency, they have increased robustness against detuning, enabling frequency-wise wideband performance. In this work, the interactions between an essentially nonlinear piezoelectric attachment and an electromechanically coupled two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) aeroelastic typical section are studied. The governing equations of the electromechanically coupled typical section with piezoelectric coupling added to the plunge DOF are presented. An equivalent electrical model of the coupled aeroelastic system is presented and combined to a nonlinear shunt circuit. The performance of the piezoelectric NES to modify the aeroelastic behavior of the typical section is discussed using the short-circuit condition as a reference case. Furthermore, the robustness of the piezoelectric NES against detuning is also investigated by changing some parameters of the typical section.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A019. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8095.

In this work the aeroelastic behavior of locally resonating periodic structures is investigated. The plate-like wing behavior will be obtained from the Love-Kirchhoff plate model with a finite number of mechanical resonators periodically distributed along its surface and using assumed-modes expansion. The unsteady aerodynamic loads are obtained from the doublet lattice model. By combining the structural and aerodynamic models, the aeroelastic behavior of the wing over a range of airflow speeds is discussed. Frequency response functions due to simultaneous base and flow excitations are calculated from the absence of flow speed to the linear flutter speed of the system without resonators. The effects of bandgap presence on the flutter boundary of the wing are also discussed.

Topics: Energy gap , Wings
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A020. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8096.

The literature of aeroelasticity includes the use of smart materials to modify the aeroelastic behavior of fixed or rotary wings. In some cases, they are employed as actuators in active control systems while in others the use of smart materials in passive control schemes is investigated. In this work a different approach is investigated. The aeroelastic behavior of a locally resonant electromechanical metastructure made from flexible substrates with piezoelectric layers connected to resonant shunt circuits is investigated. An electromechanically coupled finite element plate model is employed for predicting the electroelasatic behavior of the wing. The unsteady aerodynamic loads are obtained from the doublet lattice model. By combining the structural and aerodynamic models, the aeroelastic behavior of the metastructure over a range of airflow speeds is studied.

Topics: Resonance
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A021. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8102.

Dielectric elastomers are employed on a wide variety of adaptive structures. Many of these soft elastomers exhibit significant rate-dependencies in their response. Accurately quantifying this viscoelastic behavior is non-trivial and in many instances a nonlinear modeling framework is required. Fractional-order operators have been applied to modeling viscoelastic behavior for many years, and recent research has shown fractional-order methods to be effective for nonlinear frameworks. This implementation can become computationally expensive to achieve an accurate approximation of the fractional-order derivative. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using quadrature techniques in approximating the Riemann-Liouville definition for fractional derivatives in the context of developing a nonlinear viscoelastic model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A022. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8107.

The buckling characteristics of thin functionally graded (FG) nano-plates subjected to both thermal loads and biaxial linearly varying forces is investigated. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory is employed to account for the nano-scale phenomena in the plates. Hamilton’s principle and the constitutive relations are used to derive the partial differential governing equations of motion for the thin plates that are modeled using Kirchhoff’s plate theory. The mechanical properties of the FG nano-plates are assumed to vary smoothly across the thickness of the plate following a power law. Three types of thermal loads are presented and the spectral collocation method is utilized to solve for the critical buckling loads. The accuracy of the numerical solution of the proposed model is verified by comparing the results with those available in the literature. A comprehensive parametric study is carried out, and the effects of the nonlocal scale parameter, power law index, aspect ratio, slopes of the axial loads, boundary conditions, assumed temperature distributions, and the difference between the ceramic-rich and metal-rich surfaces on the nonlocal critical buckling loads of the nano-plates are examined. The results reveal that these parameters have significant influence on the stability behavior of the FG nano-plates.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A023. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8121.

Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) actuators operate via a nonlinear and hysteretic relationship between input power and mechanical motion. This nonlinearity presents a serious challenge when developing methods for controlling these actuators. Because this hysteresis and nonlinearity is caused by the crystal phase transformation however, the SMA constitutive and kinetic models can be written in Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) form, with the partial derivative of crystal phase fraction with respect to temperature as the varying parameter. This allows a SMA system to be written in a state-space format where the coefficients in the state matrices vary as a function of the state variables, allowing for the application of powerful linear system analysis tools to this model without simplifying assumptions. This LPV model can then be used to create an estimator for the system, allowing for real-time approximations of the system states, including temperature and phase fraction. This paper presents the derivation of one such LPV model and explores its ability to accurately represent a physical SMA actuator system by comparison with an instrumented SMA muscle system.

Topics: Wire , Actuators , Modeling
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A024. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8127.

This paper studies the vibration mitigation of a sandwich beam with tip mass using piezoelectric active control. The core of the sandwich beam is made of foam and the face sheets are made of steel with a bonded piezoelectric actuator and sensor. The three-layer sandwich beam is clamped at one end and carries a payload at the other end. The tip mass is such that its center of mass is offset from the point of attachment. The extended higher-order sandwich panel (HSAPT) theory is employed in conjunction with the Hamilton’s principle to derive the governing equations of motion and boundary conditions. The obtained partial differential equations are solved using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. Free and forced vibration analyses are carried out and the results are compared with those obtained from the use of the commercial finite element software ANSYS. Derivative feedback control algorithm is employed to control the vibration of the system. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the arrangement impact of the piezoelectric sensors and actuators on the system vibrational behavior.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A025. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8132.

Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) beams have shown over a 20% decrease in weight compared to more traditional materials without affecting system performance or fatigue life. These beams are being studied for use in automobile leaf-spring suspension systems to reduce the overall weight of the car therefore increasing fuel efficiency. These systems are subject to large amplitude mechanical vibrations at relatively constant frequencies, making them an ideal location for potential energy scavenging applications. This study analyses the effect on performance of GFRP beams by substituting various composite layers with piezoelectric fiber layers and the results on deflection and stiffness. Maximum deflection and stress in the beam is calculated for varying the piezoelectric fiber layer within the beam. Initial simulations of a simply supported multimorph beam were run in ABAQUS/CAE. The beam was designed with symmetric piezoelectric layers sandwiching a layer of S2-glass fiber reinforced polymer and modeled after traditional mono leaf-spring suspension designs with total dimensions 1480 × 72 × 37 mm3, with 27 mm camber. Both piezoelectric and GFRP layers had the same dimensions and initially were assumed to have non-directional bulk behavior. The loading of the beam was chosen to resemble loading of a leaf spring, corresponding to the stresses required to cycle the leaf at a stress ratio between R = 0.2 and 0.4, common values in heavy-duty suspension fatigue analysis. The maximum stresses accounted for are based on the monotonic load required to set the bottom leaf surface under tension. These results were then used in a fiber orientation optimization algorithm in Matlab. Analysis was conducted on a general stacking sequence [0°/45°]s, and stress distributions for cross ply [0°/90°]s, and angle ply [+45°/−45°]s were examined. Fiber orientation was optimized for both the glass fiber reinforced polymer layer to maximize stiffness, and the piezoelectric fiber layers to simultaneously minimize the effect on stiffness while minimizing deflection. Likewise, these fibers could be activated through the application of electric field to increase or decrease the stiffness of the beam. The optimal fiber orientation was then imported back into the ABAQUS/CAE model for a refined simulation taking into account the effects of fiber orientation on each layer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A026. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8135.

Dispersion relations describe the frequency-dependent nature of elastic waves propagating in structures. Experimental determination of dispersion relations of structural components, such as the floor of a building, can be a tedious task, due to material inhomogeneity, complex boundary conditions, and the physical dimensions of the structure under test.

In this work, data-driven modeling techniques are utilized to reconstruct dispersion relations over a predetermined frequency range. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on a one-dimensional beam where an exact solution of the dispersion relations is attainable. Frequency response functions of the beam are obtained numerically over the frequency range of 0–50kHz. Data-driven dynamical model, constructed by the vector fitting approach, is then deployed to develop a state-space model based on the simulated frequency response functions at 16 locations along the beam. This model is then utilized to construct dispersion relations of the structure through a series of numerical simulations. The techniques discussed in this paper are especially beneficial to such scenarios where it is neither possible to find analytical solutions to wave equations, nor it is feasible to measure dispersion curves experimentally. In the present work, actual experimental data is left for future work, but the complete framework is presented here.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A027. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8137.

In the new data intensive world, predictive maintenance has become a central issue for the modern industrial plants. Monitoring of electric machinery is one of the most important challenges in predictive maintenance. Adaptive manufacturing processes/plants may be possible through the monitored conditions. In this respect, several attempts have been made to utilize deep learning algorithms for rotating machinery fault detection and diagnosis. Among them, deep autoencoders are very popular, because of their denoising effect. They are also implemented in electric machinery fault diagnostics in order to obtain lower order representation of signals. However, none of these efforts regard the autoencoders as compression units. Bearing in mind that spectra of vibration and current signals that are collected from electric machinery are critical instruments for detection and diagnosis of their faults, we propose that deep stacked autoencoder can be utilized as spectrum compression units. The performance of the proposed strategy are assessed using a bearing data set in three ways: (1)Rule-based classifiers are implemented on raw and compressed-decompressed spectrum and their performance are compared. (2) It is shown that the several machine learning classifiers such as support vector machines, artificial neural networks and k-nearest neighbour classifiers on compressed-decompressed spectrum achieves the performance of them on raw data. (3) A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier is implemented on the low dimensional representation and it is demonstrated that the strategy of employing the same autoencoder as pretraining of feature extraction module cannot outperform the performance of this MLP classifier.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A028. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8143.

Dielectric Elastomer Transducers (DETs) are solid-state electrostatic devices with variable capacitance that can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice-versa.

Recent theoretical and experimental studies demonstrated that DETs made of materials like silicone elastomer and natural rubber can operate at very high energy densities.

Practical applicability of DETs is strongly affected by their reliability and lifetime, which depend on the maximum strain and electrical loads that are cyclically applied on such devices.

To date, very little knowledge and experimental results are available on the subject.

In this context, this paper reports on an extensive lifetime assessment campaign conducted on frame-stretched circular DET specimens made of a commercial styrenic rubber membrane subjected to cyclic electrical loading.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A029. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8144.

Helicopters suffer from a number of problems raised from the high vibratory loads, noise generation, load capacity limitations, forward speed limitation etc. Especially unsteady aerodynamic conditions due to the different aerodynamic environment between advised and retreating side of the rotor cause most of these problems. Researchers study on passive and active methods to eliminate negative effects of aerodynamic loads. Nowadays, active methods such as Higher Harmonic Control (HHC), Individual Blade Control (IBC), Active Control of Structural Response (ACSR), Active Twist Blade (ATB), and Active Trailing-edge Flap (ATF) gain importance to vibration and noise reduction. In this paper, strain-induced blade twist control is studied integrated by Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator. 3D model is presented to analyze the twisting of a morph and bimorph helicopter rotor blade comprising MFC actuator which is generally applied vibration suppression, shape control and health monitoring. The helicopter rotor blade is modeling with NACA23012 airfoil type and consists of D-spar made of unidirectional fiberglass, ±45° Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) and foam core. Two-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method is used to simulate loop between fluid flow and physical structure to enable the behavior of the complex system. To develop piezoelectric effects, thermal strain analogy based on the similarities between thermal and piezo strains. The optimization results are obtained to show the influence of different design parameters such as web length, spar circular fitting, MFC chord length on active twist control. Also, skin thickness, spar thickness, web thickness are used to optimization parameters to illustrate effects on torsion angle by applying response surface methodology. Selection of correct design parameters can then be determined based on this system results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A030. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8147.

Elastic meta-structures, with wave propagation control capabilities, have been widely investigated for mechanical vibrations suppression and acoustics attenuation applications. Periodic architected lattices, combined with mechanical or electromechanical resonators, are utilized to form frequency bands over which the propagation of elastic waves is forbidden, known as bandgaps. The characteristics of these bandgaps, in terms of frequency range and bandwidth, are determined by the local resonators as well as characteristics of the individual cells out of which the structure is composed.

In this study, the effectiveness of local stress fields as a tool for bandgap tuning in active, elastic meta-structures is investigated. A finite beam undergoing axial and flexural deformations, with a spatially periodic axial loads acting on it, is chosen to demonstrate the concept. The beam is first divided into several sections where localized stress-fields are varied periodically. Lateral and longitudinal deformations of the beam are described, respectively, by the Timoshenko beam theory and the Elementary rod theory. The Frequency-domain Spectral Element Method is then employed to calculate the forced-vibration response of the structure. The effects of the local state-of-stress on the width and frequency of the resulting bandgaps are investigated.

Topics: Stress
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A031. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8153.

In the growing field of origami engineering, self-folding is of a high regard. The latter is regularly used by nature as an efficient approach for autonomous growing and reorganizing. In this work, we present a self-folding approach based on Electro-Active Polymer (EAP), especially Conductive Polymers (CP). This approach proposes lightweight, compact and energy efficient self-folding structures, as well as large angle and reversible folding. We study the behavior of a three-segment milli-structure containing two passive segments made of paper, separated by an active segment made of CP. The folding motion of the structure was modeled and experimentally validated. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, a self-folding origami cube is presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A032. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8165.

This article presents the experimental validation of a Direct Adaptive Control for angular position regulation of a lightweight robotic arm. The robotic arm is single degree-of-freedom (DOF) system, actuated by two Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires. The proposed adaptive control is capable of adapting itself to the hysteretic behavior of SMA wires and update its behavior to deal with the changing parameters of the material over time. The closed-loop approach is tested experimentally showing its effectiveness to deal with the highly nonlinear dynamics of the SMA wires. These results are discussed and compared with a classical control approach. The updated design and hardware development and modeling of the robotic arm are shown.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T03A033. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8206.

Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are often used for robotic, biomedical, and aerospace applications because of their unique ability to undergo large amounts of stress and strain during thermomechanical loading compared to traditional metals. While SMAs such as NiTi have been used in wire, plate, and tubular forms, NiTi as a woven dry fabric has yet to be analyzed for use as protective materials and actuators. Applications of SMA fabric as a “passive” material include shields, seatbelts, watchbands and window screens. Applications as an “active” material include robotic actuators, wearable medical and therapy devices, and self-healing shields and screens. This paper applies a macro-mechanical model from composites analysis to NiTi plain woven fabric to determine the effective elastic constants. The fabric model is based on actual weave geometry, including the presence of open gaps and wire cross-sectional area, and with the same diameter and alloy in the warp and weft. A woven NiTi ribbon has been manufactured (Figure 1) using a narrow weaving machine and has been tested in uniaxial tension. Planar fabric constants were measured at a range of temperatures. The analytically and experimentally derived constants for various weave patterns and cover factor combinations are presented and compared. It was determined that in uniaxial tension the fabric behaves like a collection of unidirectional wires, but has 78% of the rigidity, on average, across all test temperatures. This result is predicted by the fabric model with a 16% error, demonstrating that the proposed analytical model offers a useful tool for design and simulation of SMA fabrics.

Topics: Textiles , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Integrated System Design and Implementation

2018;():V001T04A001. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7916.

In order to reduce the “cost of energy” for wind turbines it is an ongoing trend to increase the rotor diameter, which increases fatigue loads in the blade root area. Thus, a critical prerequisite for increased rotor diameter is the reduction of loads, which can be utilized by passive and active measures. This paper is giving an overview of current research work towards the use of a flexible trailing edge for load reduction as it is being pursued in the German national SmartBlades project. The active trailing edge is designed to change the lift of the outer blade in a way to counteract sudden changes caused by gusts or wind shear. Areas that are covered include the simulation towards the load reduction potential of such flexible trailing edges, the structural design of the trailing edge itself as a compliant mechanism, its experimental validation and fatigue investigation as well as multistable approaches for the design of such trailing edge flaps.

Topics: Wind turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A002. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7920.

Self-fitting is the ability of a wearable, garment or body-mounted object to recover the exact shape and size of the human body. Self-fitting is highly desirable for wearable applications, ranging from medical and recreational health monitoring to wearable robotics and haptic feedback, because it enables complex devices to achieve accurate body proximity, which is often required for functionality. While garments designed with compliant fabrics can easily accomplish accurate fit for a range of body shapes and sizes, integrated actuators and sensors require fabric stiffness to prevent drift and deflection from the body surface. This paper merges smart materials and structures research with anthropometric analysis and functional apparel methodologies to present a novel, functionally gradient self-fitting garment designed to address the challenge of achieving accurate individual and population fit. This fully functional garment, constructed with contractile SMA knitted actuator fabrics, exhibits tunable %-actuation contractions between 4–50%, exerts minimal on-body pressure (≤ 1333Pa or 10 mmHg), and can be designed to actuate fully self-powered with body heat. The primary challenge in the development of the proposed garment is to design a functionally gradient system that does not exert significant pressure on part of the leg and/or remain oversized in others. Our research presents a new methodology for the design of contractile SMA knitted actuator garments, describes the manufacture of such self-fitting garments, and concludes with an experimental analysis of the garment performance evaluated through three-dimensional marker tracking.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A003. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7937.

In the framework of Clean Sky 2 Airgreen 2 (REG-IADP) European research project, a novel multifunctional morphing flap technology was investigated to improve the aerodynamic performances of the next Turboprop regional aircraft (90 passengers) along its flight mission. The proposed true-scale device (5 meters span with a mean chord of 0.6 meters) is conceived to replace and enhance conventional Fowler flap with new functionalities. Three different functions were enabled: overall airfoil camber morphing up to +30° (mode 1), +10°/−10° (upwards/downwards) deflections of the flap tip segment (mode 2), flap tip “segmented” twist of ±5° along the outer flap span (mode 3). Morphing mode 1 is supposed to be activated during take-off and landing only to enhance aircraft high-lift performances and steeper initial climb and descent. Thanks to this function, more airfoil shapes are available at each flap setting and therefore a dramatic simplification of the flap deployment system may be implemented. Morphing modes 2 and 3 are enabled in cruise and off-design flight conditions to improve wing aerodynamic efficiency.

The novel structural concept of the three-modal morphing Fowler flap (3MMF) was designed according to the challenges posed by real wing installation issues. The proposed concept consists of a multi-box arrangement activated by segmented ribs with embedded inner mechanisms to realize the transition from the baseline configuration to different target aero-shapes while withstanding the aerodynamic loads. Lightweight and compact actuating leverages driven by electromechanical motors were properly synthesized to comply with stringent requirements for real aircraft implementation: minimum actuating torque, minimum number of motors, reduced weight, and available design space. The methodology for the kinematic design of the inner mechanisms is based on a building block approach where the instant center analysis tool is used to preliminary select the locations of the hinges’ leverages. The final geometry of the inner mechanisms is optimized to maximize the mechanical advantage as well as to provide the kinematic performances required by the three different morphing modes. The load-path was evaluated, and the cross-sectional size of leverages was subsequently optimized. Finally, actuating torques predicted by instant center analysis were compared to the calculated values from finite element analysis. The structural sizing process of the multi-box arrangement was carried out considering elementary methods, and results were compared with finite element simulations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A004. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7939.

Researchers and engineers design modern aircraft wings to reach high levels of efficiency with the main outcome of weight saving and airplane lift-to-drag ratio increasing. Future commercial aircraft need to be mission-adaptive to improve their operational efficiency. Twistable trailing edge could be used to improve aircraft performances during climb and off-design cruise conditions in response to variations in speed, altitude, air temperature, and other flight parameters. Indeed, “continuous” span-wise twist of the wing trailing edge could provide significant reduction of the wing root bending moment through redistribution of the aerodynamic load leading to an increase of the payload/structural weight ratio. Within the framework of the Clean Sky 2 (CS2) European research project, the authors focused on the preliminary design of a full-scale composite multifunctional tab retrofitting the outboard morphing Fowler flap of a turboprop regional aircraft. The investigation domain of the novel device is equal to 5.15 meters in span-wise direction and 10% of the local wing chord.

The structural and kinematic design process of the actuation system is completely addressed: two rotary electromechanical motors, placed in the root and tip flap sections, are required to activate the inner mechanisms enabling delta twist angles up to 10 degrees along the outboard region when the flap is stowed in the wing. The structural layout of the thin-walled closed-section composite tab represents a promising concept to balance the conflicting requirements between load-carrying capability and shape adaptivity in morphing lightweight structures. The main design parameters are optimized to minimize actuation torque required for twisting while providing proper flexural rigidity to withstand limit aerodynamic pressure distributions for large airplanes. Finally, the embedded system functionality of the actuation system coupled with the composite wing trailing edge is fully investigated by means of detailed finite element simulations. Results of actuation system performances, and aeroelastic deformations considering operative aerodynamic loads demonstrate the potential of the proposed structural concept to be energy efficient, and lightweight for real aircraft implementation.

Topics: Design , Aircraft
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A005. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7940.

In this paper a multi-segment beam, in what is called an inertial four-point loaded configuration, is proposed and its dynamic response is analyzed. In this configuration, two symmetrical overhanging free segments extend beyond the pinned supports, and two tip masses are attached to these free segments yielding symmetrical inertial loading at the tips. By varying the configuration parameters of this multi-segment beam, such as support locations and tip loading, the dynamic response of the system can be significantly altered. The harmonically excited transverse vibration of a piezocomposite beam with four-point loaded boundary conditions is analyzed as a function of the support location and tip mass. Experimental data for several support locations is presented for validation of the analytical model and the predicted relationship between the system natural frequency, support locations, and tip masses. Comparisons are also made between the multi-point loaded cases and a reference cantilevered beam. The analytical and experimental results demonstrate that the natural frequency of a multi-point loaded beam can be continuously adjusted in a relatively wide range using the configuration changes investigated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A006. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7941.

A common configuration for a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is the cantilevered beam with the piezoelectric device located near the beam root to maximize energy transduction. The beam curvature in this configuration is monotonically decreasing from root to tip, so the transduction per unit length of piezoelectric material decreases with increasing patch length. As an alternative to such conventional configuration, this paper proposes a so-called inertial four-point loading for beam-like structures. The effects of support location and tip mass on the beam curvature shapes are analyzed for four-point loaded cases to demonstrate the effect of these configurations on the total strain induced on the piezoelectric patch. These configurations are tested experimentally using several different support locations and compared with results from a baseline cantilevered beam. Performance comparisons of their power ratios are made, which indicate improvement in the transduction per unit strain of the four-point loading cases over the cantilevered configuration. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential applications of the inertial four-point loaded configuration.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A007. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7943.

This paper examines the feasibility of piezocomposite morphing airfoils and trailing edge control surfaces subjected to large dynamic pressures. Piezocomposite airfoils have been shown to be feasible on small unmanned aerial vehicles, subject to relatively low dynamic pressures, operating in the Reynold’s number range of 50k to 250k. The operating range of interest in this paper has a cruising Reynold’s number range between 250k and 1M subject to relatively large wing loading. This range of Reynold’s numbers has not been explored in detail due to the large aerodynamic loads produced. Based on the authors’ previous research on small unmanned aircraft, the proposed concept is a variable-camber airfoil that employs a continuous inextensible surface and surface-bonded piezocomposite actuators. To achieve camber-morphing, multiple piezocomposite actuating elements are applied to the upper and lower surfaces. A case study is performed to determine the design parameters of the airfoil. The parameters to be varied include the substrate thickness of the baseline airfoil, leading edge, and piezocomposite bonded areas. In addition, the positions of the piezocomposites are varied. The analysis is performed using a coupled fluid-structure interaction model assuming static aeroelastic behavior. A voltage sweep is conducted on each airfoil design while being subjected to 70 m/s free stream velocity. The sweep examines the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio of the airfoil over the full operational range. This research lays the groundwork for determining the feasibility of piezocomposite morphing airfoil and trailing edge concepts for use in applications subject to large dynamic pressures.

Topics: Aircraft
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A008. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7944.

This paper investigates the dynamic aeroelastic behavior of strain actuated flapping wings with various geometries and boundary conditions. A fluid-structure interaction model of a plate-like flapping wing is developed. Assuming a chord Reynolds number of 100,000, the wing is harmonically actuated while varying parameters such as aspect ratio and wing root clamped percentage. Characteristic metrics for the dynamic motion, natural frequency, lift and drag are developed. These results are compared with purely structural behavior to understand the aeroelastic effects.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A009. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7947.

Energy harvesting from ambient vibrations and mechanical deformations using piezoelectric materials has received significant attention over the last decade. These types of energy harvesters find applications in structural health monitoring, wireless sensor networks, etc. In this paper, vibration energy harvesting from piezocomposite beams with unconventional boundary conditions is investigated. The so-called inertial four-point boundary condition is useful in applications where the cantilevered beam setup leads to non-uniform stress-strain distribution along the beam domain. In this paper, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to model the beam. The voltage output, maximum power output, and the tip velocity are investigated. The efficiency of the four-point loaded beam is compared to a cantilever beam.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A010. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7949.

Early research on a new concept for a morphing system based on unit structures or cells containing pressurized fluid is presented in this article. The motivation stems from the desire to achieve 3D smooth variations with multiple degrees of freedom and variations in surface area. Such a cell is composed of a hybrid between elastomeric material and stiffening material, creating an orthotropic system. When connected in a network of cells, the morphing system is highly integrated in terms of the components of the skin, substructure and actuation means. Numerical predictions of small simple prismatic cells show a force and axial strain capability of above 200 N and 14% respectively for typical elastomeric and stiffening materials at 8 bar pressure. PolyJet™ additively-manufactured models of wings show how such actuators can be integrated into aircraft structures, including when 3D geometry is highly challenging. These additively-manufactured models were operated at low pressures in the order of 0.5 bar, and a number of open questions on the design, manufacture and operation of such structures are discussed along with intended future work towards higher grade materials and working pressures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A011. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7953.

This paper investigates the feasibility of a soft-structure peristaltic pumping and propulsion concept with distributed self-contained piezocomposite actuators. The peristaltic propulsion concept is analogous to various natural and synthetic mechanisms such as: (i) pulsed jet propulsion and thrust vectoring observed in squids, and (ii) operation principle of multi-phase linear electromagnetic motors. This paper proposes a propulsion system involving a series of active soft cymbal-like segments that are connected with passive soft connective segments. The active sections of the channel have distributed piezocomposite actuators, and these embedded self-contained devices enable the active section of the channel to expand and contract much like the muscular hydrostatic mantle of squids. A series of phased excitations in expansion and contraction applied to different active segments of the channel create a traveling wave along the axis of the channel, which in return “propels” the fluid in one direction. A tubular aperture with vectoring capabilities, similar to the rotating funnel of squids, is also possible. The paper presents feasibility of the concept with theoretical and experimental analyses.

Topics: Propulsion , Actuators
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A012. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7954.

The dynamic behavior of a Duffing-Holmes oscillator subjected to a Hybrid Position Feedback (HPF) controller is investigated. The so-called hybrid controller is a combination of two controllers, namely, the Negative Position Feedback (NPF), and Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controllers. The controller uses the inertial properties of the structure around its stable positions to achieve large displacements by effectively destabilizing the system using an NPF controller. Once the unstable equilibrium is reached, the system is stabilized to the target stable equilibrium using the PPF controller. This dynamic switch of controllers creates the HPF control concept, which specifically enables the monotonic and controlled transition between the states of bistable systems such as the Duffing-Holmes oscillator. This concept can be implemented to morphing structures such as bistable wings, wind turbine blades, and deployable structures.

In this paper, a detailed response type and stability analyses of a Duffing-Holmes oscillator controlled by the HPF controller are presented. First, the response types for the components of the HPF, NPF and PPF controllers are analyzed individually. For the NPF controller, three response types are defined. These are intra-well, single cross-well, and multiple cross-well response types describing the possible responses. For the PPF controller, only two response types are defined. These are stabilized and not-stabilized, since the role of the PPF controller is to generate an attractor to the desired stable equilibrium. Finally, the complete HPF controller is analyzed in terms of response type. In this case, three response types are defined: intra-well, single cross-well and multiple cross-well. The paper summarizes all the response types with detailed analyses, and recommends controller parameters for best control performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A013. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7976.

The adaptation of a wing contour is important for most aircraft, because of the different flight states. That’s why an enormous number of mechanisms exists and reaches from conventional slats and flaps to morphing mechanisms, which are integrated in the wing. Especially integrated mechanisms reduce the number of gaps at the wing skin and produce less turbulent flow. However these concepts are located at a certain section of the wing. This leads to morphing and fixed wing sections, which are located next to each other. Commonly, the transition between these sections is not designed or a wing fence is used. If the transition is not designed, the wing has a step with an activated morphing mechanism and that produces additional vortices. A new skin design will be presented in order to smooth the contour between a fixed wing and a morphing wing. Here the transition between a droop nose and a fixed wing is considered. The skin material is a mix of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber and glass-fiber reinforced plastic. The rubber is the baseline material, while the glass-fiber is added as stripes in chord-wise direction. In span-wise direction the glass fiber is connected with the rubber. The rubber carries the loads in span-wise direction and reduces the required actuation force. The glass fiber stiffens the skin locally in chord wise direction and keeps the basic contour of the skin. Some geometrical parameters within the skin layup can be varied to change the transition along the span or to reduce the maximum strain within the skin. The local strain maximum is a result of the material transition with different modules. One design of a leading edge was manufactured with an existing mold and it has a span of 200 mm. There are two essential aspects from a structural point of view. One is a nearly continuous deformation along the span and the second is the maximum strain in the rubber. Both aspects are investigated in an experiment and the results are compared with a simulation model. The results show a reliable concept and its numerical model, which will be assigned to a full scale demonstrator. This demonstrator will have a span of 1000 mm and will show the smooth skin transition between a droop nose and a fixed wing.

Topics: Design , Skin , Wings
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A014. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7980.

This paper presents the design and the realization of an innovative SMA actuated bistable vacuum suction cup. The sealed, compact and fully integrated design enables the positioning and transport of inherent stable components in mobile and stationary applications. The bistable actuator mechanism based on SMA wires combined with a bistable spring represent an energy-efficient, noiseless gripping system without the need for compressed air. Additionally, the self-sensing effect of the SMA enables a sensorless condition-monitoring and energy-efficient control.

The mechanics consists of antagonistic SMA wires, which are laterally arranged and connected to the bistable spring via levers. The membrane is directly connected to the bistable spring. The actuation of the wires leads to a rotational movement of the levers thus changes the state of the bistable spring, which directly deforms the membrane. When the membrane is sealed connected to the workpiece, the deformation of the membrane generates a vacuum.

The integrated microcontroller electronics manages the joule heating of the wires by measuring the transmitted electrical energy. By applying an electrical energy to the pre-strained SMA wire, the wire heats up and contracts due to the phase transformation from martensite to austenite. The contraction of the wire is accompanied by a significant change in electrical resistance, which enables a resistance based strain feedback. The integrated electronics is able to correlate this resistance change to the actual state of the bistable spring, which leads to a position feedback of the membrane. This allows an adequate electrical energy deposition in the SMA wire by turning-off the heating directly after the position toggle of the membrane. Thereby, a successful position toggle is ensured independent from the ambient temperature and the real supply voltage. The new position of the membrane is then held by the bistable spring without the use of additional energy. This concept leads to a reliable gripping system with fast actuation times.

Topics: Vacuum , Grippers
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A015. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7985.

The reduction of low-frequency noise transmission through thin-walled structures is a topic of research for many years now. Due to large wavelengths and the mass law, passive solutions usually gain low performance in the frequency range below 500 Hz. Active systems promised to fill the gap and to achieve significant reductions of transmitted sound. Nevertheless, experiments showed the outstanding performance of such specialized systems, but also demonstrated the computational and hardware effort of such solutions. The upcoming additive manufacturing technology enabled new multi-material designs of complex structures. Based on this technology, acoustic metamaterials emerged in the laboratories and in literature. Arrays of miniaturized locally resonant structures are able to change the noise transmission of thin walled structures beyond the limits of the given mass law in certain frequency bands.

For future aircraft contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) engines are a promising technology to reduce their CO2 footprint. Since the contribution of CROR engines to the cabin noise is higher than for jet engines, new strategies for the reduction of noise transmissions for frequency bands below 200 Hz are necessary. For the tonal noise of the CROR engines, acoustic metamaterials seem to be an appropriate solution. In this paper a 110 × 110 × 1 mm3 thin-walled sample plate is presented. It is covered with a 5 × 5 array of multi-material resonant structures, which are printed as mass on a beam. The rubber-like beam material combines a low Young’s modulus with a high material damping, leading to a low eigenfrequency of the resonators. The design of the resonators using simulations and experimental data is shown. To explore the potential of the design, an acoustic test box is manufactured. Starting with all resonators unblocked the emitted sound intensity of the plate is measured. Sequential blocking of selected resonators proves the concept. Additional laser scanning vibrometer measurements give insights into the vibration behavior of single resonators.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A016. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-7989.

Bistable structures have several applications in different areas, such as aircraft morphing wings, morphing wind turbine blades, and vibration energy harvesting, due to their unique properties. Bistable structures can be used in morphing wings and wind turbine blades since they are able to alleviate large loads by snapping from one stable position to the other one. A piezoelectric actuator can be used to bring the bistable structure back to its original position after the load is alleviated. In this paper, the transient response of a piezoelectrically actuated bistable beam is investigated experimentally for different force inputs. The goal of these experiments is to explore the ability of a commercial piezoelectric actuator to induce snap-through motion in a bistable structure. The feasibility of performing snap-through motion, and the required energy are found for different excitation force amplitudes and frequencies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A017. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8020.

This article investigates a method of designing fractal origami tessellations through eigen analysis. Foldable structures with hierarchical geometric features could be beneficial in applications where a graded functionality is desired. A representative unit in an origami tessellation is modeled as networked truss elements with torsional springs at fold lines. Eigen analysis and nonlinear mechanics analysis of the representative unit with fractal boundary conditions reveal the foldability of a given fractal origami crease pattern out of its flat state. This configuration can be used to construct a folded fractal origami tessellation with a desired number of fractal levels, which can then be used to evaluate its functional merit. The design process is demonstrated for the design of a fractal origami tessellation with tailored boundary shape change (from rectangular to trapezoidal) through folding, that could be used as an enabling mechanism for an adaptive wing section.

Topics: Design , Fractals
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A018. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8108.

Regional aviation is an innovation driven sector of paramount importance for the European Union economy.

Large resources and efforts are currently spent through the CleanSky program for the development of an efficient air transport system characterized by a lower environmental impact and unequalled capabilities of ensuring safe and seamless mobility while complying with very demanding technological requirements. The Green Regional Aircraft (GRA) panel, active from 2006, aims to mature, validate and demonstrate green aeronautical technologies best fitting the regional aircraft that will fly from 2020 onwards with reference to specific and challenging domains: from advanced low-weight and high performance structures up to all-electric systems and bleed-less engine architectures, from low noise/high efficiency aerodynamic up to environmentally optimized missions and trajectories management.

The development of such technologies addresses two different aircraft concepts, identified by two seat classes, 90-pax with Turboprop (TP) engine and 130-pax, in combination with advanced propulsion solutions, namely, the Geared Turbofan (GTF), the Advanced Turbofan (ATF) and the Open Rotor (OR) configuration.

Within the framework of the Clean Sky program, and along nearly 10 years of research, the design and technological demonstration of a novel wing flap architecture was addressed. Research activities aimed at demonstrating the industrial feasibility of a morphing architecture enabling flap camber variation in compliance with the demanding safety requirements applicable to the next generation GRA in both open rotor and turboprop configurations. The driving motivation was found in the opportunity to replace a conventional double slotted flap with a single slotted morphing flap assuring improved high lift performances — in terms of maximum attainable lift coefficient and stall angle — while lowering emitted noise, fuel-burnt and deployment system complexity. Additional functionalities for load control and alleviation were then considered and enabled by a smart architecture allowing for an independent shape-control of the flap tip region during cruise.

The entire process moving from concept definition up to the experimental qualification of true scale prototypes, characterized by global and multi-zone differential morphing capabilities, is here described with specific emphasis on the adopted design philosophy and implemented technological solutions. Paths to improvements are finally outlined in perspective of a low-term item certification and series production.

Topics: Aircraft , Wings
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A019. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8129.

Transport class aircraft produce a significant amount of airframe noise during approach and landing due to exposed geometric discontinuities that are hidden during cruise. The leading-edge slat is a primary contributor to this noise. In previous work, use of a slat-cove filler (SCF) has proven to reduce airframe noise by filling the cove aft of the slat, eliminating the circulation region within the cove. The goal of this work is to extend and improve upon past experimental and computational efforts on the evaluation of a scaled high-lift wing with a superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) SCF. Recent turbulence measurements of the Texas A&M University 3ft-by-4ft wind tunnel allow for more accurate representation of the flow through the test section in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The finite volume models used in CFD analysis are coupled to structural finite element models using a framework compatible with an SMA constitutive model and significant deformation, enabling fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the SCF. Both fully-deployed and retraction/deployment cases are considered. The displacement of the SCF on the experimental model is measured at various stages of retraction/deployment using a laser displacement sensor and digital image correlation system. Due to a lack of structural stiffness in the 3D-printed plastic slat during retraction and SCF stowage, a rigid steel slat is incorporated into the physical model and preliminary wind tunnel tests are conducted at multiple angles of attack.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A020. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8138.

Future aircraft wing technology is rapidly moving toward flexible and morphing wing concepts capable to enhance aircraft wing performance in off-design conditions and to reduce operative maneuver and gust loads. However, due to the reduced stiffness, increased mass, and increased degree of freedom (DOF), such mechanical systems require advanced aeroelastic assessments since the early design phases; this appears crucial to properly drive the design of the underlying mechanisms since the conceptual phase by mitigating their impact on the whole aircraft aeroelastic stability.

Preliminary investigations have shown that the combined use of adaptive flap tabs and morphing winglets significantly improves aircraft aerodynamic performance in climb and cruise conditions by the order of 6%. Additionally, by adapting span-wise lift distributions to reduce gust solicitations and alleviate wing root bending moment at critical flight conditions, significant weight savings can also be achieved.

Within the scope of Clean Sky 2 Airgreen 2 project, flutter and divergence characteristics of a morphing wing design integrating adaptive winglets and flap tabs are discussed. Multi-parametric flutter analyses are carried out in compliance with CS-25 airworthiness requirements (paragraph 25.629, parts (a), (b), (c) and (d)) to investigate static and dynamic aeroelastic stability behavior of the aircraft. The proposed kinematic systems are characterized by movable surfaces, each with its own domain authority, sustained by a structural skeleton and completely integrated with EMA-based actuation systems. For that purpose, a sensitivity analysis was performed taking into account variations of the stiffness and inertial properties of the referred architectures. Such layouts were reduced to a stick-equivalent model which properties were evaluated through MSC-NASTRAN-based computations. The proprietary code SANDY 4.0 was used to generate the aero-structural model and to solve the aeroelastic stability equations by means of theoretical modes association in frequency domain. Analyses showed the presence of critical modal coupling mechanisms in nominal operative conditions as well as in case of system malfunctioning or failure. Design solutions to assure clearance from instabilities were then investigated. Trade-off flutter and divergence analyses were finally carried out to assess the robustness of the morphing architectures in terms of movable parts layout, mass balancing and actuators damping.

Topics: Stability , Aircraft
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A021. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8167.

Morphing winglets are innovative aircraft devices capable to adaptively enhance aircraft lift distribution throughout the flight mission while providing augmented roll and yaw control capability. Within the scope of the Clean Sky 2 REG IADP, this paper deals with nonlinear simulations of a regional aircraft wing equipped with active morphing winglets in manoeuvring conditions. The fault tolerant morphing winglet architecture is based on two independent and asynchronous control surfaces with variable camber and differential settings capability. The mechanical system is designed to face different flight static and dynamic situations by a proper action on the movable control tabs. The potential for reducing wing and winglet loads by means of the winglet control surfaces is numerically assessed by means of static aeroelastic analyses, using a feedforward manoeuvre load alleviation controller. An electro-mechanical Matlab/Simulink model of the actuation architecture is used as design tool to preliminary evaluate the complete system performance and the ability to cope with the expected morphing aeroshapes. Then, the aeroelastic model of the aircraft is combined with the nonlinear simulator of the response of the winglet actuation system to evaluate a symmetric and asymmetric manoeuvres obtained by a sudden deflection of the main control surfaces. The use of the morphing winglet tabs shows to alleviate the wing loads in such conditions. The introduction of the dynamic actuator model leads to a reduction of the performances with respect to predictions of the static analyses but a reduction of the manoeuvre loads can still be observed.

Topics: Stress , Aircraft , Wings
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A022. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8189.

Steady-state traveling waves in structures have been previously investigated for a variety of purposes including propulsion of objects and agitation of a surrounding medium. In the field of additive manufacturing, powder bed fusion (PBF) is a commonly used process that uses heat to fuse regions of metallic or polymer powders within a loose bed. PBF processes require post-process removal of loose powder, which can be difficult when blind holes or complex internal geometry are present in the fabricated part. Here, a preliminary investigation of a simple part is conducted examining the use of traveling waves for post-process de-powdering of additively manufactured specimens.

The generation of steady-state traveling waves in a structure is accomplished through excitation at a frequency between two adjacent resonant frequencies of the structure, resulting in two-mode excitation. This excitation can be generated by bonded piezoceramic elements actuated by a sinusoidal voltage signal. The response of the structure is affected by the parameters of the excitation, such as the particular frequency of the voltage signal, the placement of the piezoceramic actuators, and the phase difference in the signals applied to different actuators. Careful selection of these parameters allows adjustment of the quality, wavelength, and wave speed of the resulting traveling waves.

In this work, open-top rectangular box specimens composed of sintered nylon powder and coated with fine sand are used to represent freshly fabricated parts yet-to-be cleaned of un-sintered powder. Steady-state traveling waves are excited in the specimens while variations in the frequency content and phase differences between actuation points of the excitation are used to affect the characteristics of the dynamic response. The effectiveness of several response types for the purpose of moving un-sintered nylon powder within the specimens is investigated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A023. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8235.

By introducing the progresses on Morphing currently achieved within the European Project “AIRGREEN2”, in Clean-Sky 2 GRA platform, this work presents a review of the research step forwards accomplished in the last decade by three Italian Partners largely active in the field: the Italian Aerospace Research Centre, the University of Naples “Federico II” and the Politecnico of Milano. A chronologic overview is at first presented, revisiting the research programs and the achieved results; an organic development path has been then built, starting from low TRL achievements up to arrive at the most complete technical accomplishments, characterized by a high level of integration and targeting specific aerospace applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A024. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8236.

Aircraft wing design optimization typically requires the consideration of many competing factors accounting for both aerodynamics and structures. To address this, research on morphing aircraft has shown its potential by providing large benefits on aircraft performance. In particular, by adapting wing lift distribution, morphing winglets are capable to improve aircraft aerodynamic efficiency in off-design conditions and reduce wing loads at critical flight points. For those reasons, it is expected that these devices will be applied to the aircraft of the very next generation. In the study herein presented, a preliminary failure analysis and structural design of a morphing winglet are presented. The research is collocated within the Clean Sky 2 Regional Aircraft IADP, a large European programme targeting the development of novel technologies for the next generation regional aircraft. The safety-driven design of the proposed kinematic system includes a thorough examination of the potential hazards associated with the system faults, by taking into account the overall operating environment and functions. The mechanical system is characterized by movable surfaces sustained by a winglet skeleton and completely integrated with a devoted actuation system. Such a load control device requires sufficient operational reliability to operate on the applicable flight load envelope in order to match the needs of the structural design. One of the most critical failure modes is assessed to get key requirements for the system architecture consistency. Possible impacts of the defined morphing outline on the FHA analysis are investigated. The structural design process is then addressed in compliance with the demanding requirements posed by the implementation on regional airplanes. The layout static robustness is verified by means of linear stress analyses at the most critical conditions, including possible failure scenarios. Results focus on the assessment of the device static and dynamic structural response and the preliminary definition of the morphing system kinematics, including the integrated actuator system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A025. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8246.

This paper summarizes the results obtained in the framework of Clean Sky 2 REG-IADP, AIRGREEN on the development of a dedicated morphing device, i.e. a Leading Edge morphing. This device, designed so to be installed on a advanced, twin prop, regional aircraft, is conceived to guarantee high lift conditions together with a smoothed and continuous skin surface, especially important due to the presence of a laminar wing. The design of a such as complex devices required a multi-disciplinary approach, able to combine the aerodynamic performances and the structural ones related to the compliant structures concept adopted for the internal structure. The paper includes an overview of all the design challenges, the adopted solutions and finally the obtained numerical assessments.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A026. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8256.

A trade-off exists in compliant morphing structures between weight, adaptability, and load-carrying capacity. A truss-like structure utilizing a selectively stiff, bi-stable element is proposed to provide a solution to this problem. The design space of the element is explored in a parameter study using a finite element model. The element is embedded in a rib to correlate its behavior to that of the element in isolation. Finally, an aeroelastic analysis is conducted on the rib to determine the response of the structure to aerodynamic loading.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A027. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8262.

Ultrasonic atomization of bulk liquids has received extensive attention in the past few decades due to the ability to produce controlled droplet sizes, a necessity for many industries such as spray coating and aerosol drug delivery. Despite the increase in attention, one novel application of this technology has been overlooked until recently, and that is the moisture removal capabilities of atomization. The first ever ultrasonic dryer, created by researchers at Oak Ridge National Lab in 2016, applies the mechanisms of atomization to mechanically remove moisture from clothing. The process utilizes the ultrasonic vibrations created by a piezoelectric transducer in direct contact with a wet fabric to rupture the liquid-vapor boundary of the retained water. Once ruptured, smaller droplets are ejected from the bulk liquid and are actively removed from the fabric pores. The mechanisms of droplet ejection from this event are related to both capillary waves forming on the liquid surface (Capillary Wave Theory), as well as the implosion of cavitation bubbles formed from the hydraulic shocks propagating from the transducer (Cavitation Theory). In this work, we present an analytical model for predicting the moisture removal rate of a wet fabric exposed to ultrasonic vibrations, and connect the atomization events to a global variable, acceleration, in order to decouple the relationship between the transducer and applied voltage. The acceleration governing atomization is predicted using a verified numerical model. The numerical model is shown to assist in developing ultrasonic drying by means of efficiently evaluating transducer design changes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2018;():V001T04A028. doi:10.1115/SMASIS2018-8263.

In machine tool engineering, the impact of thermal issues on machine precision and efficiency has been outlined in numerous studies. One of the major challenges is the energy-efficient distribution of heat within the machine structure. In order to control occurring heat fluxes without additional energy input into the machine tool, smart materials can be used for load-dependent adjustment of heat transfer characteristics.

The present study illustrates the development and examination of heat transfer switch mechanisms using shape memory alloys. Experimental and numerical results demonstrate how different types of actuators can be used to enable an energy self-sufficient thermal switch function between heat source and heat sink. Different scenarios are considered and the combination of thermal switches with highly conductive heat-transfer devices and latent heat storages is evaluated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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