ASME Conference Presenter Attendance Policy and Archival Proceedings

2017;():V004T00A001. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-NS4.

This online compilation of papers from the ASME 2017 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE2017) represents the archival version of the Conference Proceedings. According to ASME’s conference presenter attendance policy, if a paper is not presented at the Conference by an author of the paper, the paper will not be published in the official archival Proceedings, which are registered with the Library of Congress and are submitted for abstracting and indexing. The paper also will not be published in The ASME Digital Collection and may not be cited as a published paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Conceptual Design and Manufacturability Analysis

2017;():V004T05A001. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67415.

Human-computer interactions (HCI) are essential in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. Replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard by gestures for the design input has aroused wide interests of researchers to improve the naturalness and intuitiveness of HCI. A gesture-based design review system is proposed in this paper for the CAD model review. Human gestures are captured using Microsoft Kinect. Based on the review of frequently-used CAD commands in the design review process, six commands including translation, scaling, rotation, navigation, exploding and assembly are proposed using human body gestures for the design review process. FAAST is used as a middleware to transmit skeleton joint signals from Kinect to the review system via VRPN. Applications of the interface show the proposed method is able to effectively trigger required design operations via gestures. Results of the user test shows that intuitiveness and naturalness of HCI are improved via gestures compared to traditional methods of the design input.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A002. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67702.

This paper proposes an interactive method for product design based on dual-domain transformations from the principle domain to physical domain. The method considers that product design is a process to search proper actions or reactions to interact with product’s surroundings. Such actions or reactions are used to develop elements of a product by building energy-flow and force-path connections. The actions and reactions of energy flows, force paths, space and interface constraints are physically formed through the dual-domain transformation. A multi-purpose electric vehicle is developed using the proposed method.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A003. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68046.

The paper presents the conceptual and functional design of a novel machine used to create chamfers on wooden beams and called RCT. The authors show, in this paper, the technical problem and the technical specifications used to design a machine to solve the problem. The novelty of the patented invention is based on its originality and usefulness. All claims of the invention are underlined by the novelty and innovation. In this paper, the steps performed to design the proposed machine are discussed in details. The chamfering process is performed using disc saws and the machine is moved on the wooden beam using rubber wheels. This machine uses four disk saws to create chamfers on wooden beams. The particularity of this machine is the possibility to use two or four disk saws for chamfering two or four edges. The market’s needs allow us to design a novel machine with original motion and manufacturing process giving a big impact to creativity and innovation in design for manufacturing.

Topics: Design , Robotics
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A004. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68337.

In some cases, the level of effort required to formulate and solve an engineering design problem as a mathematical optimization problem is significant, and the potential improved design performance may not be worth the excessive effort. In this article we address the tradeoffs associated with formulation and modeling effort. Here we define three core elements (dimensions) of design formulations: design representation, comparison metrics, and predictive model. Each formulation dimension offers opportunities for the design engineer to balance the expected quality of the solution with the level of effort and time required to reach that solution. This paper demonstrates how using guidelines can be used to help create alternative formulations for the same underlying design problem, and then how the resulting solutions can be evaluated and compared. Using a vibration absorber design example, the guidelines are enumerated, explained, and used to compose six alternative optimization formulations, featuring different objective functions, decision variables, and constraints. The six alternative optimization formulations are subsequently solved, and their scores reflecting their complexity, computational time, and solution quality are quantified and compared. The results illustrate the unavoidable tradeoffs among these three attributes. The best formulation depends on the set of tradeoffs that are best in that situation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A005. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68427.

Government and societal interests in additive manufacturing have increased scrutiny on process analysis, cross-cutting sustainability, and integrated decision-making methods to address commercialization and sustainability challenges. One of the key challenges is the absence of standardized metrics to assess design parameters and manufacturing practices. The primary objective of this research is to create a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision-making framework for enhancing sustainability across the design and fabrication of medical devices. The motivation behind this study lies in the inherent limitations of the existing methods. The proposed framework herein improves the traditional approaches by integrating extensive sharing of information and feedback among all design and manufacturing steps, and consequently coupling the economic and environmental sustainability dimensions. The framework includes sets of qualitative (e.g., data processing and design analysis) and quantitative (e.g., build time and energy use analyses) methods to assess transforming the raw material into optimal and sustainable final products. As an application of this study, optimal and sustainable approaches for the developing and competitive market of Orthotic and Prosthetic, particularly Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO), is examined. Decision makers, such as managers and manufacturers, will benefit from the integrated methods in the proposed framework. The results indicate the framework offers a promising approach to address existing sustainability challenges in the AFO industry.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

2017;():V004T05A006. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67368.

This paper presents the preliminary results of a case study of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in composite manufacturing. The purpose of FMEA is to improve quality, reliability, safety, durability, and reduce product life-cycle costs. Six various methods of composite layup (both manual and automated) were identified and examined with respect to various defect types caused through the composite layup process such as porosity, fiber misalignment, excess or insufficient resin, and incomplete curing. An adaptation of FMEA for composite manufacturing was used to analyze the different defect types, and the occurrence, severity, and detectability of each type of failure in each of the composite manufacturing processes. Failure was defined as the loss of function or ability to perform a prescribed task in a given manner for which that part was designed [1]. The conclusions of this study are two-fold: design engineers can analyze the most common composite material defects in order to build robustness into the product and the methodologies used can assist process improvement for manual or automated composite manufacturing.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A007. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67474.

This paper proposes a method for finding the optimal fixture layout to achieve acceptable gauge repeatability in the inspection process of a non-rigid part. Currently, there are no rigorous means of evaluating the effectiveness of a fixture layout for a part in terms of gauge repeatability until actual parts and gauges are available late in the product development process. Changes to the part design or modifications to the gauge at this late stage are usually costly and can result in program delays, incurring substantial costs. This paper proposes an approach to arrive at the best locator layout for gauge repeatability early in the part design phase thereby avoiding costly and time-consuming changes during the build phase. The method is implemented using a commercially available tolerance stack software with finite element analysis combined with a specially coded genetic algorithm. The method’s effectiveness is demonstrated through the improvement in gauge repeatability from an arbitrary datum scheme to the optimal datum scheme in a notional design problem as well as an actual production part. We also demonstrate that the commonly accepted datum scheme of using a primary plane along the largest dimension of a part may be highly suboptimal for gauge repeatability.

Topics: Gages
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A008. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67557.

Multistage manufacturing processes (MMPs) are networked manufacturing systems consisting of multiple operational stations that have characteristics of mechanical and control systems. Common challenges in the design of MMPs are the selection of sensors and tools as this not only affects the dimensional quality of the finished product, but also influences the computational complexity in representing and analyzing the problem. Imprecise or incomplete information results in uncertainty in the models used to represent the MMP and limit the use of traditional design approaches. In this paper, an exploration method for the concurrent design (CDEM) of MMPs under uncertainty is presented wherein the attributes of tools and sensors are treated as design variables, thereby allowing flexibility in a design process. The proposed method is illustrated using an example of automotive panel stamping process. Our focus in this paper is on the method rather than the results per se.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A009. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67615.

Due to interest in aspects such as process, strategies, and tools of engineering changes expressed in a literature review, a case study was done on a major automotive OEM to assess the perceived quality of its part engineering change management process and supporting system through its employees’ eyes. A combination of 12 interviews lasting 12 hours and 46 written surveys was used to capture the views of participants from all major functions found at the research and development (R&D) headquarters of the OEM: Purchasing, Production, Development, and one group consisting of all other functions (“Other”). Statistical analysis was performed to identify statistically significant differences between employee perceptions of an engineering change management system among different departments, amount of use, and years of use. It was found that statistically significant differences exist in terms of understanding the usability of the system between different departments and also between different years of experience.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A010. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67716.

The influence of component errors on the final error is a key aspect of error modeling of CNC machine tool. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the errors in mechanical parts accumulate to result in the component errors and then impact the final error of CNC machine, has not been identified; the identification of this mechanism is highly relevant to precision design of CNC machine. In this study, error modeling based on the Jacobian-torsor theory is founded to determine the mechanism by which fundamental errors in mechanical parts influence the comprehensive error of single-axis assembly. Firstly, the constraints of small displacement torsors (SDTs) for typical features and the statistical solution are proposed to perfect the modified Jacobian-torsor model theoretically. Next, the modified Jacobian-torsor model is applied to the error modeling of a single-axis assembly in a three-axis machine center. Furthermore, the comprehensive errors of the single-axis assembly are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation based on the synthesized error model. The accuracy and efficiency of the modified Jacobian-torsor model are verified through a comparison between the simulation results and the measured data from a batch of similar vertical machine centers. Based on the modified Jacobian-torsor model, the application of quantitative sensitivity analysis of single-axis assembly is investigated, along with an analysis of the analysis of key error sources to the synthetical error ranges of the single-axis assembly. This model is providing a comprehensive method for the better understanding of the key error source of the machine tool and has the potential to enable error allocation and precision improvement of the assembly and the whole machine tool in future.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A011. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68039.

This paper presents two design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) tools for estimating diametric in-plane shrinkage and the longitudinal variation of diameter in circular cylinders produced by the Fused-Deposition Modeling (FDM) method. First, an experiment is conducted by printing thirty cylinders and taking 980 measurements to study the variation of diametric shrinkage along the cylinder axis and with the variation of the top and bottom thicknesses and diameter of the cylinder. The variation of in-plane shrinkage along the axis produced an interesting bulging effect, which is also studied. The studies are conducted using a custom-made, dual-extrusion 3d-printer and a poly-lactic acid plastic. Second, the statistically significant trends from the experiment are compiled into two DfAM tools, presented as charts, which could be used to estimate and compensate for shrinkage and bulging resulting in FDM-printed circular cylinders of comparable sizes used in the study.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A012. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68126.

DFA principles are widely used to ease the assembly/manufacturing of a design in general. There are various methods which use the DFA principles to quantify design efficiency. The most commonly used industry approved methods are Lucas method and Boothroyd-Dewhurst method. Lucas and Boothroyd methods are both different approaches in DFA; the former is used to analyze product design without need for specific dimensions. On the other hand, to use the Boothroyd method, it is assumed that the designer already has all the dimensions of the part (parametric design). This paper focuses on answering the following research questions-

1. Are there any similarities between the Lucas method and Boothroyd-Dewhurst method?

2. Is there any similarity between the Efficiency index of Lucas method and Design efficiency of Boothroyd method?

3. Can the two methods be integrated and used as one method?

4. After integrating, can the method be coded as computer software?

The research questions will be validated by implementing the DFA methods on a stapler, table fan, and bottle opener. In this paper, the goal is to identify if Boothroyd and Lucas method can work together in product design phase; and if they could be used together, the authors propose a flowchart explaining the process. New DFA techniques are not being investigated/proposed. The Design efficiency of Stapler, Table fan, and Cork opener were 71.4%, 21.05%, and 50% respectively using Lucas method; The corresponding Feeding index was 2.12, 7.7, and 2.17 respectively, and Fitting index was 2.94, 11.25, and 6.93 respectively; And, 63%, 28.86% and 52.7% respectively using Boothroyd method. Design efficiency results indicate that Lucas method and Boothroyd-Dewhurst method are similar analysis and are equally important during the design phase. The above 2 methods can work in tandem with each other to provide insight into: “how many functional parts are there in a product?” and “how long it will take for it to assemble?”

Topics: Manufacturing , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Design for Sustainable Additive Manufacturing

2017;():V004T05A013. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67864.

Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to a group of manufacturing techniques that produce components by melting and bonding material powders in a layer-by-layer fashion. By virtue of its capability of producing parts with complex geometry and functionally graded materials, AM is leading the charge of the “third industrial revolution” and has attracted great attention in multiple industrial sectors, such as manufacturing, healthcare, aerospace, and others. Sustainability of AM remains an open question. AM is inherently an energy expensive process and may be energy inefficient as compared to the traditional manufacturing process. Thus, there exists an urgent need to identify the key influence factors and quantify the energy consumption during AM production. The proposed study aims to obtain a preliminary understanding of the impact of part surface geometry on AM energy consumption. The study addresses the effect of part geometry on AM energy consumption through experimental design method. Part geometry consists of two level meanings, part surface area and part surface complexity. The study utilizes a MakerGear M2 fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer to complete the designed experiments. By implementing experimental design and statistical analysis technologies, the study firstly identifies the correlation between part geometry and AM energy consumption. The result shows that part surface area is positively correlated with AM energy consumption and no significant statistical evidence to support that part surface complexity is associated with AM energy consumption. Such findings are of significance to AM energy consumption in terms of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In addition, the study has significant potentials to guide the future AM energy consumption model development and to be extended to future AM process improvement.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A014. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68002.

The goal of this study is to develop a heuristic part separation algorithm for assembly-based design in Additive Manufacturing (AM). The objective is to minimize the total processing time including both buildup time and assembly time. In the proposed algorithm, the part separation is recursively conducted until the number of assemblies reaches a threshold value. The proposed method helps designers determine the proper number of assemblies and their buildup orientations. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the application of the algorithm.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A015. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68047.

Additive manufacturing (AM) processes enable the creation of lattice structures having complex geometry which offer great potential for designing light weight parts. The combination of AM and cellular lattice structures provide promising design solutions in terms of material usage, cost and part weight. However, the geometric complexity of the structures calls for a robust methodology to incorporate the lattices in parts designs and create optimum light weight designs. This paper proposes a novel method for designing light weight variable-density lattice structures using gyroids. The parametric 3D implicit function of gyroids has been used to control the shape and volume fraction of the lattice. The proposed method is then combined with the density distribution information from topology optimization algorithm. A density mapping and interpolation approach is proposed to map the output of topology optimization into the parametric gyroids structures which results in an optimum lightweight lattice structure with uniformly varying densities across the design space. The proposed methodology has been validated with two test cases.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A016. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68405.

Technology advancements in additive manufacturing allow for useful design optimization, especially in the field of integration (single components with multiple functions). The design process of a component includes considerations of design aspects, such as part geometry with respect to anticipated load conditions, chemical affinity due to possible adverse interaction of non-similar metals, weather conditions not predicted by applied coatings or protection systems and manufacturing design constraints. Due to reduced manufacturing constraints, additive manufacturing brings advantages such as reduced assembly time, higher part performance, and much greater geometric freedom. The following study explores the advantages and quantifies the cost optimization factors, such as manufacturing and assembly costs and material considerations, when assemblies and/or single components are replaced with an additively manufactured part, in mass produced and small volume applications. A relative part replacement cost function will be produced to show the feasibility of changeover to an additive manufactured part, furthermore two case studies will be analyzed and a new case study will be conducted and compared. Additive manufacturing costs, due to the popularization of different techniques, are constantly dropping and, therefore, are becoming valuable options in small to medium scale manufacturing operations as a way to reduce assembly costs and increase design performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Design of Sustainable Energy Systems

2017;():V004T05A017. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67014.

The techno-economic analysis outcomes of bioenergy production compared with traditional energy indicate that the existing production technologies are not promising, however environmental analyses demonstrate that bioenergy products support cross-cutting sustainability and strategic analysis efforts. Therefore, utilization of bio-products, such as bio-oil and biofuels, is expected to increase in the near future due to environmental pressures. The overarching goal is to balance the primary dimensions of sustainability using both distributed and centralized conversion technologies. To this end, this research proposes a conceptual decision making framework to examine biomass-derived energy production system infrastructures and process-level operations. This framework encompasses three phases (i.e., 5-ton study, 50-ton study, and 500-ton study), using techno-economic, financial risks, cross-cutting assessments to scale-up bioenergy production, foster technology commercialization, and enhance sustainability benefits. The motivation behind the proposed framework lies in inherent limitations of the existing bioenergy conversion technologies and production systems. As an application of this research, a sustainable bioenergy economy fueled by innovative conversion technologies is examined in the state of Georgia to produce (at least one billion gasoline gallon equivalent) hydrocarbon biofuels from underutilized feedstocks (e.g., terrestrial and algae). The outcomes can address national priorities: promote energy security and reduce dependence on imported oil, promote the use of diverse domestic and clean energy resources, establish advanced bioindustries and rural economies, and mitigate environmental impacts from fossil fuel production and consumption.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A018. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67423.

When designing a wind turbine blade, the goal is to attain the highest possible power output under specified atmospheric conditions.In this paper,the maximum likelihood estimation method was used to compute the hub height wind speed at 65m mathematical model based on the observation data of He xi Corridor wind at 10m height, taking He xi region of a certain type of 40m blade as an example, based on the Blade Element Momentum Theoty and tip loss, established the blade aerodynamic mathematic model, using the genetic algorithm on the blades. Each section of the chord, twist angle of wind energy utilization coefficient, girder cap layer thickness parameters were optimized, The aerodynamic performance and stress distribution are given out, the results showed that the optimized blade wind energy utilization coefficient is greatly improved and the quality of the blade is significantly reduced. It is suitable for wind the characteristics of the blade design condition performance supper than that of general blade.It provides a theoretical basis for the blade design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A019. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67461.

As sustainable building mandates become more prevalent in new commercial and mixed use buildings, it is a challenge to create a broad, one-size-fits-all certification process. While designers can estimate energy usage with computational tools such as model based design, anticipating the post occupancy usage is more challenging. Understanding and predicting energy usage trends is especially complicated in unique mixed use building applications, such as university student housing buildings, where occupancy varies significantly as a function of enrollment, course scheduling, and student study habits. This research explores a computational modeling approach used to achieve LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum certification for a student housing complex design. A case study is presented from the California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) campus, and examines the impact of post occupancy building usage trends, and diversity factor, defined as a building’s instantaneous energy usage normalized by the maximum allowable usage, on energy use estimates. The CSUF case model, which was originally created using EnergySoft’s EnergyPro 5 software, is examined. An annual predictive energy use comparison is performed in EnergyPro 5 using general building design mandates (i.e., ASHRAE 90.1, California Title 24), and CSUF case specific building usage details (e.g., student scheduling, diversity factor). In addition, the energy usage estimates of these two predictive models are compared to the actual usage data collected during the 2014 academic year. The results of this comparison show the benefits of considering post occupancy usage, and recommendations are presented for creating unique and application based computational models, early in the design process. This research has broad applications, and can extend to sustainable building design in other organizations, whose operational schedule falls outside of current prediction methods for sustainability mandates.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A020. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67825.

Understanding the use-phase energy consumption of consumer electronics is of great importance, as it has significant effects on both policy and product designs. Inaccurate estimations of the use phase energy consumption can offset the results of the life cycle assessment and impeach the effectiveness of the energy intervention policies. The use phase energy consumption is governed by the consumers’ usage behavior. However, the relationship between consumers’ attributes and their usage behavior, and energy consumption is not clear. This paper analyzes two data sets, a data set of hard drives’ Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T) and the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) to shed light on the relationship between usage behavior and energy consumption. Several supervised and unsupervised machine-learning methods have been used to reveal possible trends in the consumers’ use-phase attributes. The results of the study suggest that various demographic properties and behavioral variables related to computer usage affect the energy consumption profile of households.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A021. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67897.

The purpose of the paper is to provide a model prediction to capture how energy usage in sustainable buildings on college campuses is affected by different climate zones. A case study focus is on the California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) Student Housing Phase III which received a Platinum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for the Building Design and Construction category. In a previous CSUF study, the energy usage and cost data for the 2014–2015 academic year was compared to the predicted data from the LEED NC 2.2. The comparison revealed there was a small discrepancy, 10%, between the values for predicted electrical consumption versus actual consumption; however, a greater difference, 135%, between the gas consumption exists. Using LEED approved simulation software, the ASHRAE 90.1 and LEED California Nonresidential Title 24 (NRT 24) compliant energy simulation models is compared; the results will provide input over which variables within student dormitory life affect the energy usage of the building. Some solutions may update the LEED project certification as well as reduce student energy usage.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Emerging Design for X (Quality, Reliability, Cost, Maintainability, etc.)

2017;():V004T05A022. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67223.

In recent years, the performance and miniaturization of portable information devices have rapidly advanced. The build-up process is often used in the manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) for high-density circuits. At present, CO2 laser beams are generally used in the build-up process to drill blind via holes (BVHs) that connect copper foils. The Cu direct-laser method is often used in this process, which irradiates laser to drill the copper foil and insulation layer simultaneously. Cu direct-laser involves a complex phenomenon because it drills copper and resin, with different decomposition points, at the same time. However, only few studies have been made in this field. This report focuses on monitoring Cu direct-laser drilling with a high-speed camera. We drilled holes with four different laser power outputs, 25 W, 50 W, 75 W, and 95 W and measured the size of the drilled holes. During the drilling process, the camera captured the emission of scattering materials in the PWBs. We have processed the images obtained from the camera to observe the scattering material. As a result, we found out that changes in the amount of scattering occur on four occasions: when the outer copper foil is drilled through, when the drilled depth reaches the inner copper foil, when the increase rate of the hole diameter is reduced, and when the inner copper foil is drilled through. Based on these results, the suitable laser irradiation time can be determined for different drilling conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A023. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67481.

Research is currently ongoing for composite materials using natural fiber with a small burden on the environment. We have been focusing on bamboo because of its fast growth, renewability, flexibility, low cost, and high specific strength. We previously proposed a novel hot press fabrication method for binder-free green composite products made from bamboo fibers extracted by end-milling with a machining center. We can use this method to form three-dimensionally shaped products, especially hemispherical shells, by using two kinds of dies. However, this method is complex and takes longer than one-step hot press forming. In the present report, we propose a new method that uses bamboo powder with a particle size of less than 500 μm. Our new method uses one-step hot press forming and is quicker than the previous method at making a hemispherical shell shape. The new method was successfully used to manufacture hemispherical shell-shape products.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A024. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67950.

Designing products for recyclability is driven by environmental and economic goals. Several Design for Assembly rules and parameters can be used to gauge the recyclability index of product designs. These indices can then be used for comparative analysis of the recyclability of different products. This would assist the designer in making design choices related to the end of the product’s life cycle. Further, such design decisions could be made earlier in the design process, when the design space is less bound. A case study was conducted for different products to compare their recyclability indices. The parameters were obtained from existing Design for Assembly time estimate tables. The results of the study indicated the recyclability of the product, as defined by established recyclability metrics, could be predicted through design for assembly measures. A statistically significant negative correlation was realized between recyclability and insertion time. Effectively, components that required greater time to mate during assembly adversely affected the recyclability of the product. Conversely, handing time was found to have no predictive capability to product recyclability.

Topics: Manufacturing , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A025. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68098.

Global corporations are facing competitive pressures and as result are outsourcing products or services to improve profitability, reduce delivery schedules, increase product features, and increase value to their shareholders. However hidden or unexpected costs can come with these benefits that erode the expected profits and outweigh the cost savings. This includes unintended consequences that arise from employee lay-offs and knowledge loss. This can result in negative perceptions on the value of outsourcing within the firm. This paper will report on a study of an outsourced development project at a Fortune 500 company that examined the drivers that impede accurate cost estimates used to assess the viability of outsourcing R&D activities. A result of the case study was that while there was hidden costs uncovered, significant misperceptions within the firm initially eroded the value of the outsourced activities.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A026. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68287.

The moment a system is put into service it begins to lose value as technological and societal changes accrue while the system is frozen in the state it was constructed. System decision makers are faced with the choice of accepting a decline in performance, updating the design, or retiring the system. Each time a decision maker faces these alternatives, the value of the available options must be evaluated to determine the preferred course of action. A design that can adapt to changes with minimal cost should provide more value over a longer period than a system that is initially less costly, but less adaptable. This is especially desirable for systems that have large initial costs and/or a lengthy development cycle. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the United States Air Force (USAF) B-52 Stratofortress and the United States Navy (USN) F/A-18 Hornet to characterize the changes in desired capabilities and what system attributes allowed them to either successfully adapt or prevented them from adapting. These observations allow the development of heuristics that designers can use during system design to enhance system lifetime value.

Topics: Design , Cycles , Navy , Air Force
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Engineering for Global Development

2017;():V004T05A027. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68129.

Previous works have demonstrated that the Distributed Reaction regime impact on the reformate product distribution. Using previous works, a theory of how the Distributed Reaction regime influences the reformate product composition is provided. Distributed Reaction regime is achieved by entraining exhaust products into the premixed fuel air mixture. As some steam and carbon dioxide will form in the exhaust, it is theorized that the mixing of the entrained flow (containing heat, carbon dioxide, and steam) into the premixed fuel air mixture will promote dry and steam reforming reactions, improving conversion. As kinetic information on reforming literature is limited, the activity and time scales of these reactions were determined from existing experimental data. This was then used to determine which reactions were active under Distributed Reforming conditions.

Topics: Fuels
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A028. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68132.

India, the world’s largest producer of cotton, contains more than 4 million cotton farms that are less than 5 acres. These farms are incapable of large-scale mechanization due to small farm size and irregular farm shape. A previous team developed a handheld, roller-based picking device that demonstrated increased performance over similar products. However, a significant improvement in productivity requires increasing picking speed through mechanization as well as increasing worker cotton carrying capacity. We present a system that utilizes the roller-based picking device in tandem with a compressive storage bag and an efficient carrier. Through modeling and initial testing, the system demonstrates a two times (2X) improvement in worker productivity over current methods. This paper characterizes the cotton picking process, details the modules of the integrated system, and suggests further procedural improvements for greater increases in worker productivity.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A029. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68411.

Wind turbines can provide energy in developing countries. However, there are limitations to the skilled labor and manufacturing equipment required to manufacture these systems in these regions. Accordingly, the manufacturing process needs to be adapted to the potential of the developing world. In this work, a simplified wind turbine blade design is investigated. The turbine efficiency is analyzed by the blade element momentum (BEM) theory. Two different scenarios are considered to simplify the design of the wind turbine blade. The shape of the blade is simulated by a rectangular root connected to several trapezoidal segments. This results in a simple chord length distribution. The design of the twist angle is also considered. The area under the power curve is used to compare the performance of the simplified blades with that of the original design. Results show that the twist angle can be completely omitted as a tradeoff between efficiency and manufacturability. Depending on the number of simplified design segments, the area under the power curve is reduced between 13% and 25 % with respect to the original blade. The model also demonstrates how the loss in efficiency increases as the simplicity of blade design increases. Still, the design simplification enables a manufacturing process which may facilitate the use of wind energy in the developing world.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Life Cycle Decision Making

2017;():V004T05A030. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67610.

This paper analyzes the value of staged deployment for complex infrastructure system and propose a concept of bootstrapping staged deployment. Staged deployment has been well known for its advantage of providing flexibility in an uncertain environment. In contrast, this paper demonstrates that the proposed bootstrapping staged deployment can even add values in a deterministic environment. The key idea of bootstrapping staged deployment is to have the previously deployed stages support the subsequent deployment. We develop an analytical model to demonstrate the effects of bootstrapping staged deployment with a case study in space exploration. Our analysis results show that with a well-coordinated deployment plan, staged deployment can overperform single-stage deployment even in a deterministic environment, and that there is an optimal number of stages in terms of lifecycle cost under certain conditions. Our method can find the analytical expression for the optimal number of stages and its deployment strategies. The general findings from the proposed concept and analytical method can advance our knowledge about systems staged deployment, and make operational planning of resource generation infrastructure more efficient.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A031. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67973.

Data collected during product lifecycle phases ranging from the beginning of Life (BOL), to the middle of life (MOL) and the end of Life (EOL) assist designers to make informed decisions in various operational and strategic levels. The specific focus of this paper is to show that the data collected during the usage phase of Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) can be used to identify the failure rates of HDDs. Two sources of data were applied: quantitative data extracted from Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) software, and qualitative data collected from consumer reviews. The data were analyzed to predict the most reliable HDDS available in the market. Some of the important factors to be considered during manufacturing of an HDD are suggested based on the results obtained.

Topics: Disks , Failure
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A032. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68052.

Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. Making a consistent lifecycle model among the different vessel typologies, repeatable with the same level of detail and comparable for the implementation of decision-making strategies, remains an open question. This paper aims to define a suitable lifecycle model in the context of maritime vessels to cope with the current limitations of ad-hoc and fragmented methods. The model considers the main aspects involved in the vessel lifecycle such as building materials, manufacturing and assembly, maintenance/service, operational activities, use, etc. The model provides a common structure for the lifecycle assessment (LCA) and lifecycle cost analysis (LCCA) including the way to retrieve and to collect the data necessary for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and the design models. The method is flexible and it is able to cover a large variety of maritime vessel typologies. As example, a luxury yacht has been analysed using the developed method, demonstrating the applicability of the proposed model in one of the most critical vessel typology.

Topics: Cycles , Vessels
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A033. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68282.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely used tools to determine environmental impact of products and processes. One of the main concerns with the life cycle assessment tool is the limited comparability of LCA results due to limitations in defining the functional unit. In response to this, an object-oriented approach has been proposed and further developed by related research. This object-oriented approach relies on the calculation of a Cumulative Damage Function (CuDF) to quantify the amount of consumed life in each item in the bill of materials used in an LCA. The focus of this work is to develop a framework to quantify CuDF that leverages exiting reliability and life estimation methods, namely the concepts of Remaining Useful Life (RUL) and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). The framework is applied to a simple example to motivate its use and utility.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A034. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68303.

Given that a significant percentage of a product’s impacts are defined during design and development, there is a need to effectively integrate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) into these early phases. However, the lack of standardized practices, the lack of appropriate modeling approaches, data issues, special training requirements for designers, and uncertainties in the results make it difficult to apply LCA in these early stages. In order to address this gap, this work builds on previous research that integrated system engineering and functional analysis into LCA to develop an object-oriented framework for LCA. The framework is applied to a consumer product and the results of the approach demonstrate the potential for an easy to update and scalable LCA model that facilitates comparability. Each module in this model can be developed separately and integrated effectively into a larger model guided by functional analysis techniques. This framework holds the promise to better integrate LCA into the design and development phases.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A035. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68365.

Product take-back and reuse is an effective way to reduce the environmental footprint of products. Millions of tons of waste are disposed in landfills in the United States, electronic products being of particular concern. While constituting a small fraction of landfilled waste, electronic components account for a majority of the environmental impact. The major challenge in addressing this issue is that the components are functionally obsolete and in a state where their numbers and type are not known. Even with concerted efforts to solve this problem through better design or collection practices, a major unknown is how much actually falls through the cracks and makes it to landfills. Human sorting and identification is impractical, while automating this process has been difficult because of limitations of algorithms to match human ability to discern objects. Deep learning promises to change this. This paper discusses the use of autonomous systems that can scan unorganized heaps of products to identify and catalog components, particularly electronics. This approach can fill an important gap in our knowledge. This paper discusses the testbeds created by the authors which shows promise in accomplishing this task. The paper also discusses the repercussions of such a study and cataloging on design decision-making as well as environmental legislation.

Topics: Decision making
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Student Poster Competition on Data-Driven X for the Life Cycle

2017;():V004T05A036. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67617.

Increasing concerns about global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem degradation are pushing manufacturing enterprises to consider environmental impacts of the products they make. Tools such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been developed to quantify environmental performance of a product, yet the implementation of LCA requires a significant amount of time/resources and its potential in assisting eco-design has been limited. Research has been done to conduct automatic LCA using the simplified database for electronics or to investigate the environmental impact of electricity consumption in a manufacturing process. However, a comprehensive and automated approach is in need to perform LCA analysis for a product considering all related materials and manufacturing processes. In this research, a framework for automating LCA analysis for eco-friendly product design has been developed and implemented with a computer program. A case study has been conducted using the proposed automatic LCA tool to perform life cycle analysis in the design process. The result of the tool can, with minimal time required, provide detailed distribution of life cycle impact indicators among direct inputs and assist in making design decisions to reduce the environmental footprints.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A037. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67679.

Environmental impacts of manufacturing are often significant and influenced by part and process parameters. Energy consumption is one of the most critical factors for the overall environmental impact of manufacturing. To achieve energy reduction, one must estimate the manufacturing energy consumption throughout the design stage. This paper presents an efficient data-driven approach to utilize machine learning to estimate energy consumption of a manufacturing process from a CAD model. The approach enables quick cost estimation with limited knowledge about the exact process parameters. A case study of fused deposition modeling is used to illustrate the feasibility of this framework and test potential regression methods. Lasso and elastic net regressions were compared in this study. The potential application of this framework to other manufacturing processes is also discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A038. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68249.

Efforts to reduce product environmental impacts such as energy consumption and carbon footprint have received attention for many years, often driven by consumer pressure on companies to produce more environmentally friendly products. As the next generation of engineers who will take responsibility for advancing the sustainability of products, processes, and systems, engineering students need to become more familiar with the concepts of sustainable product design and manufacturing. Yet, educators are disadvantaged in training these students, and tools are deficient in assisting product sustainability assessments for manufacturing decision making by other non-experts. A manufacturing analysis module is introduced, which was developed under collaborative research titled, Constructionism in Learning: Sustainable Life Cycle Engineering (CooL:SLiCE). This CooL:SLiCE manufacturing analysis module provides an opportunity for non-expert students and engineers to investigate the impacts of product design changes on manufacturing processes and supply chain network configurations, e.g., selection of upstream processes, transportation routes, and transportation modes, from environmental responsibility perspective. One popular consumer product, a multicopter, is selected to demonstrate the module. The production of three hexacopter components are evaluated: the upper shell, lower shell, and propeller. The manufacturing analysis module enables non-experts to gain a better understanding of sustainable product design and manufacturing.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A039. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68262.

While there have been many advancements in additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for metal products, there has not been a great deal of attention paid toward developing an understanding of the relative sustainability performance of various AM processes for production of aerospace components, such as wire feed and powder bed fusion processes. This research presents a method to calculate and compare quantitative metrics for evaluating metal AM process on a basis of sustainability performance. The process-level evaluation method encompasses a triple bottom line analysis for low volume part production. A representative aerospace titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) component is considered for the study and the production of the part is modeled using direct energy deposition (DED) as the representative wire feed AM process and selective laser melting (SLM) as the representative powder bed AM process. The results indicate that DED has a superior sustainability performance to SLM, mainly due to the relatively slower deposition rate and higher cost of material for SLM than DED. This research provides decision makers an approach method and a demonstrated case study in comparing DED and SLM AM processes. This understanding reveals advantages between the two options and offers avenues of future investigation for these technologies for further development and larger scale use.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference: Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

2017;():V004T05A040. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67698.

This paper aims to analyze the attitude and the awareness of environmental sustainability issues within diverse Italian industrial companies. A survey has involved a balanced sample of companies operating in different industrial sectors. Considering the survey’s results it can be concluded that: (i) environmental sustainability is an opportunity and a current market requirement, (ii) environmental sustainability is not formalized, since specific methods and tools are not used in technical departments, and (iii) environmental decisions are mainly made by specific key figures (i.e. energy/environmental manager). This analysis can be considered as a useful starting point for the framework formalization of eco-design approaches and tools able to bring eco-design principles into the work of technical departments with the aim to foster the future development of green and sustainable products and services.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A041. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67803.

Before recycling used lithium-ion laptop batteries, testing and sorting work is needed through charge and discharge tests. For current lithium-ion battery charge and discharge tests, the battery is discharged through a resistor. Thus, the energy in the process is all dissipated.

In this paper, an energy-recycling battery test system model is introduced. In the system, a Li-ion 18650 battery can be charged at a constant current mode and a constant voltage mode and discharged at a constant current mode, which are realized by PWM-controlled DC-DC converters. The modes are automatically switched through a controller. In the discharging process, energy is transferred from the under-test battery to a storage battery, which can also serve as a charging source instead of the DC power supply to recycle the energy.

The system is simulated using Matlab Simulink. Its test accuracy and energy-transferring efficiency is considerable. According to the simulation results, the system can save about 50% energy overall in one charge and discharge cycle.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A042. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68054.

Most design activities involve exploring and comparing existing designs. Thus, adopting an eco-conscious approach in the design exploration process can aid environmentally sustainable product design (SPD). One approach for supporting exploration in SPD is through tools based on information visualization (InfoVis). The use of InfoVis for SPD allows data-driven exploration of solutions that is rapid, direct, and supports investigation of questions that the designer may not have identified. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of InfoVis tools for different facets of the lifecycle, e.g. redesign, supply chain exploration, and life cycle assessment. These tools focus on projecting sustainability-related implications back to design. However, to fully realize their potential, future tools must synthesize data in a manner that helps designers view the effects of a design change on all downstream stages. Such tools will have to work across multiple data types, visual representations, and stakeholders. In this paper, we take the first steps towards addressing this challenge by formulating design patterns for visualization and interaction of product lifecycle data. These design patterns were synthesized by reviewing previous works that have successfully created visualization-based tools for SPD. The suggested design patterns can, (1) serve as a guide for creating integrated visualization-based tools for SPD, and (2) help create reusable visual components that aid in quick interface wireframing.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A043. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68141.

The goal of sustainable development through the product innovation is a global challenge that Academia and Industries are addressing. The regulatory pressure and the growing demand of eco-friendly products by consumers are two of its main drivers, especially in the household appliances sector. For this aim, manufactures need to change the design approach in order to extend the boundaries of the benchmark analysis of possible innovations: (i) multi-objective criteria should be taken into account such as the environmental issues, costs, technical performances, etc., and (ii) a life cycle thinking has to be adopted to consider long terms benefits or impacts.

However, the literature highlights the lack of structured methods able to support the R&D activity according to these perspectives. For this aim, the present paper provides a systematic approach, which exploits lifecycle and innovation tools to effectively support designers in the development of sustainable solutions in a long term perspective. The proposed approach has been applied in real case study to increase the energy efficiency of a domestic refrigerator. In particular, the insulation module has been redesigned by comparing several alternatives in terms of environmental performances and costs over the product lifespan to effectively evaluate the consistency of the developed eco-innovations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A044. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68334.

Ecology is proving to be an innovative source for design principles. Studies have examined how ecological principles can enhance sustainability in industrial networks. Ecologically-inspired manufacturing networks tend to focus on supporting symbiotic relationship formation, creating a cyclical flow structure that has been shown to result in efficiency and resource consumption improvements. Despite successes, bio-inspired manufacturing networks still fail to accurately mimic ecosystem cycling. The roles of exclusive actors and specialized predators in achieving the high cycling characteristic of ecosystems is investigated here. Exclusive actors participate in the network as either only a consumer (predator) or only a producer (prey). Specialized predators consume only one producer inside the system boundary. The populations of these special actors in manufacturing networks versus ecological food webs speaks to the potential influence these roles have on the cycling the network achieves. The trends shown here suggest less exclusivity is necessary for achieving ecologically-strong network cycling.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A045. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68339.

Sustainability considerations are becoming an intrinsic part of product design and manufacturing. Today’s consumers rely on package labeling to relay useful information about the environmental impact of a given product. As such, eco-labeling has become an important influence on how consumers interpret the sustainability of products. Three categories of eco-labels are theorized: Type I focuses on the use of labels that are certified by a reputable third party. Type II are eco-labels that are self-declared, potentially lacking scientific merit. Type III eco-labeling indicates the public availability of product LCA data. However, regardless of the type of eco-label used, it is uncertain if eco-labeling directly reflects improved product sustainability. This research focuses on exploring if eco-labeling reflects improved product sustainability by comparing eco-labeled products to conventional alternatives. To do this, we perform a comparative study of eco-labelled and comparable conventional products using a triple bottom line sustainability analysis, including environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we show that for a selected set of products, eco-labeling does, in fact, have a positive correlation with improved sustainability. However, Type II eco-labeling shows a slight negative correlation with product sustainability. We found only one eco-labeled product (with Type II labeling) that had reduced environmental impact over the conventional alternative. Additionally, the majority of the eco-labeled products in the study are cheaper for the consumer in both initial cost and costs incurred throughout the product’s lifetime. In general, the results confirm that most eco-labels are indicative of improved sustainability. Future research can work towards improving Type II eco-labels, and promote policies that protect against false sustainability claims.

Topics: Sustainability
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A046. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68396.

Regenerative rocket nozzle cooling technology is well developed for liquid fueled rocket engines, but the technology has yet to be widely applied to hybrid rockets. Liquid engines use fuel as coolant, and while the oxidizers typically used in hybrids are not as efficient at conducting heat, the increased renewability of a rocket using regenerative cycle should still make the technology attractive. Due to the high temperatures that permeate throughout a rocket nozzle, most nozzles are predisposed to ablation, supporting the need to implement a nozzle cooling system. This paper presents a proof-of-concept regenerative cooling system for a hybrid engine which uses hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as its solid fuel and gaseous oxygen (O2) as its oxidizer, whereby a portion of gaseous oxygen is injected directly into the combustion chamber and another portion is routed up through grooves on the exterior of a copper-chromium nozzle and, afterwards, injected into the combustion chamber. Using O2 as a coolant will significantly lower the temperature of the nozzle which will prevent ablation due to the high temperatures produced by the exhaust. Additional advantages are an increase in combustion efficiency due to the heated O2 being used for combustion and an increased overall efficiency from the regenerative cycle. A computational model is presented, and several experiments are performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T05A047. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68436.

The research on the dynamic strain of drum brakes is of great significance in performance evaluation, structure optimization and fatigue prediction. Based on current research of strain experiments and measuring technology, a new test procedure is proposed to investigate strain and temperature information of a working drum. Wireless data acquisition system and high-temperature strain gauges are applied. The strain-time and temperature-time curves are studied on the conditions of emergency brake and continuous brake. A tribological and thermo-mechanical analysis are conducted by using software ABAQUS. Results show that the strain is uneven when the drum contacts different zones of friction plates. Seasonal variation is another feature and a set of four wave crests repeats during the rotation. Meanwhile, thermal effect is proved important to strain. The simulation results coincide well with experiments, proving that this method provides a practical way to verify the calculation. The study also lays the foundation for the following fatigue analysis and optimization design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: Bio MEMS/NEMS

2017;():V004T09A001. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67109.

In this study, a double-layer nerve guide conduit (DLNGC) that comprises an inner poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold with palisade structure and an outer micro-porous chitosan-collagen composite (CSC) membrane was developed. The PLGA scaffold was fabricated using the commonly used soft-lithography process and then rolled into a tube. The micro-porous CSC membrane was fabricated by lyophilization (freeze-drying), with its pore size being controlled by the chitosan:collagen weight ratio. The CSC properties such as water absorption rate, permeation rate, and biocompatibility were then measured. The CSC containing 25% chitosan (CSC-25%) has a high water absorption and permeation rates. Hence, it was adopted as the outer structure of the developed nerve conduit scaffold. After wrapping a palisade PLGA tube with a CSC-25% membrane to complete a DLNGC, mouse brain neural stem cells KT98 were injected into the inner PLGA scaffold through the pores of the outer CSC membrane. Images of biopsy samples illustrate that KT98 cells can be immobilized on the CSC-25% membrane after seven days’ culture. On the 14th day of culture, the thickness of the KT98 cells was found to have increased, and the cells were wrapped around the PLGA scaffold. The tissue section image further indicated that KT98 cells grew along the palisade structure of the PLGA scaffold.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A002. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67446.

Three-dimensional biomimetic biosensors for food safety applications are presented. The sensors mimic the porous media of fresh produce and can detect the presence of pathogens in low concentration, monitor their internalization, and also determine potential formation of biofilm. The sensors use capacitive/impedance measurement for detection and have 3-dimensional structures allowing microorganisms to occupy the space between electrodes and the substrate. Interdigitated sensors with suspended electrodes and a parallel-plate sensor are studied using finite element analysis, and their performance is compared to that of a 2-imensional planar sensor. The simulation results show that under similar circumstances, all 3D sensors provide better sensitivities for detection of microorganisms and biofilm formation compared to the 2D sensor. 3D interdigitated and parallel-plate sensors display 16% and 30% higher sensitivity in detection of microorganisms, and 44% and 48% higher sensitivity for detection of biofilm formation, respectively. Furthermore, a biomimetic device with stack of electrodes is presented that can monitor the internalization of pathogens in real time. The device forms layers of multiple sensors resembling the actual fresh produce and can track the penetration of microorganisms inside the device. This novel structure allows us to understand how long it takes for microorganisms to penetrate in a produce and how environmental parameters such as temperature variation or the presence of nutrients or sanitizers affect their behavior, providing invaluable data to improve food safety and optimize the sanitization processes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: Dynamics and Control of Atomic Force Microscopy

2017;():V004T09A003. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67536.

In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is investigated, considering the influence of squeeze film damping in fractional-order. Its influence plays an important role because the dynamics of the AFM can be led to different responses, e.g., periodic and chaotic motions, specially the influence of the derivative order when in fractional-order. In a way to characterize the type of behavior, the 0–1 test was used once this is a good tool to characterize fractional-order differential systems. In addition, the linear feedback control technique for fractional-order systems is applied to control the chaotic behaviors. Therefore, the results showed a nonlinear behavior presented by the AFM system. In addition, the feedback control technique was efficient to control the chaotic motion of the micro cantilever beam of the AFM, whose results included variation of parameters of the fractional derivative of the squeeze film damping.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: Dynamics of MEMS and NEMS

2017;():V004T09A004. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67190.

In this paper, a non-linear active disturbance rejection controller (NADRC) is designed and originally applied to a non-linear one-degree-of-freedom electrostatic actuator (ESA). The imperfections of micro-fabrication and micro-packaging result in the modeling uncertainties of ESA. In addition, the ESA is inherently unstable due to pull-in phenomenon. So our control goal is to overcome the pull-in instability of ESA and achieve 99.99% of its full travel range despite of the presence of uncertainty. The NADRC consists of an extended state observer (ESO) and a feedback controller. Two kinds of ESOs are developed in this paper. They are high gain ESO (HG ESO) and the ESO with Fal nonlinearity (FAL ESO). The NADRC is independent of accurate model information, and therefore is a suitable controller for the uncertain ESA. The NADRCs with two different ESOs are simulated on the nonlinear ESA. A comparison study is conducted between both ESOs in terms of control performance and stability. The simulation results demonstrate the controllers with both ESOs reach our control goal successfully. While the NADRC with HG ESO generates larger control effort than the one with FAl ESO, the former is more robust against parameter variations and disturbance than the later.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A005. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67381.

Parametric resonances in a repulsive-force MEMS resonator are investigated. The repulsive force is generated through electrostatic fringe fields that arise from a specific electrode configuration. Because of the nature of the electrostatic force, parametric resonance occurs in this system and is predicted using Mathieu’s Equation. Governing equations of motion are solved using numerical shooting techniques and show both parametric and subharmonic resonance at twice the natural frequency. The primary instability tongue for parametric resonance is also mapped. This is of particular interest for MEMS sensors that require high signal-to-noise ratios due to the large oscillation amplitudes associated with parametric resonance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A006. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67523.

Micro- and nanolectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) incorporating two-dimensional structural elements such as plates attracted significant interest in recent years. In this work, we explore implementation of a model based on Berger’s approximation, which significantly simplifies the formulation of a curved plate and describes it by a single governing equation. The solution of this equation is based on the Galerkin decomposition with buckling modes of an initially flat plate used as the base functions. To track the unstable branches of the equilibrium curve, a continuous method based on the Riks algorithm is implemented. The validation of the models is conducted for two loading cases, “mechanical” deflection-independent load, and electrostatic displacement-dependent load. In the case of an initially flat plate, results provided by the reduced order (RO) Galerkin models were compared to results available in the literature. In the case of a curved plate undergoing “mechanical” loading, results of a direct finite elements (FE) analysis, as well as of a finite differences (FD) analysis, were used as a reference. We show that the DOF Berger RO model can be conveniently used for analysis of plates with small curvature, as it provides satisfactory accuracy. Further more, a single DOF model can be used for the development of a bistability criterion.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A007. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67588.

The collective nonlinear dynamics of electrostatically coupled nanobeams under parametric excitation is modeled and investigated, while including the main sources of nonlinearities up to the fifth order. The normalized nonlinear differential equations are solved using secular perturbation theory. Numerical simulations have been performed using the Asymptotic Numerical Method for two and three coupled nanobeams. It is shown that, the fifth order nonlinearity leads to an increase in the number of multimodal solutions and their complexity in term of bifurcation topology. This model can be exploited to design arrays of NEMS with high performances for sensing applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A008. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67720.

Micromechanical resonators have extensive applications but unavoidably exhibit nonlinearities that may degrade the devices’ performances. A good understanding of their nonlinear dynamics is essential to the design of resonant devices. In this paper, we numerically investigated the dynamics of a cantilever beam resonator working at a coupled extensional and flexural vibrational modes with a 2:1 internal resonance. An amplitude saturation behavior is observed in the cantilever beam resonator by controlling the external driving force. The flexural mode shows a complex nonlinear behavior changing from a softening effect to a hardening effect and the extensional mode shows nonlinear behavior due to the nonlinear mode coupling.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A009. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67785.

We experimentally demonstrate a new pressure sensor that offers the flexibility of being scalable to small sizes up to the nano regime. Unlike conventional pressure sensors that rely on large diaphragms and big-surface structures, the principle of operation here relies on convective cooling of the air surrounding an electrothermally heated resonant structure, which can be a beam or a bridge. This concept is demonstrated using an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS resonator, which is designed to be deliberately curved. We show that the variation of pressure can be tracked accurately by monitoring the change in the resonance frequency of the resonator at a constant electrothermal voltage. We show that the range of the sensed pressure and the sensitivity of detection are controllable by the amount of the applied electrothermal voltage. Theoretically, we verify the device concept using a multi-physics nonlinear finite element model. The proposed pressure sensor is simple in principle and design and offers the possibility of further miniaturization to the nanoscale.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A010. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67823.

We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A011. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67845.

We report an analytical and experimental study on the tunability of in-plane doubly-clamped nanomechanical arches under varied DC bias conditions at room temperature. For this purpose, silicon based shallow arches are fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The experimental results show good agreement with the analytical results with a maximum tunability of 108.14% for 180 nm thick arch with a transduction gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes. The high tunability of shallow arches paves the ways for highly tunable band pass filtering applications in high frequency range.

Topics: Arches
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A012. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67863.

We propose combining the hardening and softening nonlinearities of two resonators to realize a near flat pass band filter of almost zero roll-off. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and laterally actuated microbeams made of Silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce softening resonance peak. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the hardening resonance peak of the other resonator. This overlapping improves the filter’s pass band flatness and roll-off characteristics, which are highly desirable. This technique can be promising for future generation of filters with superior characteristics.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A013. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67996.

In this article, we investigate the nonlinear static and dynamic behavior of a clamped circular microplate in presence of imperfections. By taking in account the von Kàrmàn nonlinearity, the geometrical imperfections lead to a significant delay in static pull-in occurrence. Numerical simulations are performed in the frequency domain to study the dynamic behavior under primary resonance. A parametric analysis is conducted with respect to actuation voltages and initial deflection in order to capture the competition between hardening and softening behavior. Interestingly, we show that a geometric imperfection can change the type of nonlinear response from softening to hardening. In practice, the imperfection can be functionalized to enhance the performances of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers.

Topics: Microplates
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A014. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68027.

Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) have many uses in electromechanical systems, including voltage transformation and galvanic isolation, and have been commercialized on the macro scale in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays. The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales, that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical systems. PTs and a competing technology, inductive electromagnetic voltage transformers, are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs showing favorable trends for micro-system designers. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in radial extension modes, are a good candidate for microfabrication, and are considered here. Bulk disc-type PT analysis is based on constitutive equations of thin piezoelectric disc dynamics, and the standard piezoelectric radial mode disc dynamics equations are reviewed, followed by an alternate method of derivation, based on the Generalized Hamilton method. This alternate derivation shows the promise of the Hamilton method in potentially developing a full model of device behavior, including mechanical boundary conditions such as tethering, and predictions of device voltage gain, based on energy considerations. Additionally, experimental resonance frequencies of 4.00mm diameter, 0.13mm thick bulk disc PTs are compared with numeric and analytic results, showing good agreement.

Topics: Modeling , Disks
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A015. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68241.

In this paper, we present a comprehensive model to simulate the behavior of a general MEMS arch resonator under various thermal conditions. The model takes into account the changes in the microbeam’s parameters, air properties and the internal stresses due to temperature and humidity. The continuous, flexible, initially curved microbeam was excited linearly and nonlinearly around both its first and third modal natural frequencies. It was found that the mutual effects of temperature and humidity on air viscosity is amplified over four times when the microbeam is operated in the nonlinear regime. Furthermore, results showed that the relative humidity influence is more severe at higher values of the temperature. Finally, the microbeam’s frequency shift due to change in humidity increases when operating the microbeam at its third natural frequency compared to first natural frequency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A016. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68284.

We experimentally demonstrate memory and logic devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device are electrostatically actuated and capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency modulation is achieved through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the clamped-guided arch microbeam. We present two case studies: first, a dynamic memory based on the nonlinear frequency response of the resonator, and second, a reprogrammable two-input logic gate based on the linear frequency modulation of the resonator. These devices show energy cost per memory/logic operation in pJ, are fully compatible with CMOS fabrication processes, have the potential for on-chip system integration, and operate at room temperature.

Topics: Arches
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: Functional Materials and Surface Engineering

2017;():V004T09A017. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67926.

Since vanadium atom has a half-filled d-shell, there exist a set of valence states to form a number of oxide phases. In this paper, the deposited vanadium thin film is oxidized under different conditions. The electrical characterization shows some oxides of vanadium undergo a transition from semiconductor state to a metal phase at a critical temperature. Such vanadium oxides have potential use, particularly in thin film form, for a wide variety of applications involving thermally activated electronic switching devices. The surface morphology is studied under SEM. The temperature coefficient of resistivity of other vanadium oxide states is studied as well.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: MEMS Sensors and Actuators

2017;():V004T09A018. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67075.

The performance of a microgyroscope consisting of a microbeam made of nanocrystalline silicon connected to a rigid proof mass and subjected to electric actuation is numerically investigated. The operating principle is based on the transfer of mechanical energy among two vibration modes (drive and sense) via the Coriolis effect. The onset of the base rotation is observed to split the common natural frequency of the two bending modes along drive and sense directions into a pair of closely-spaced natural frequencies. The difference between this pair of frequencies is considered as the output parameter detecting the rotation rate. We follow an analytical approach to obtain closed-form solutions of the static and dynamic responses of the microsystem. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the output parameter of the present microgyroscope to the rotation rate when varying the material properties of the microbeam and the electric actuation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A019. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67486.

This paper presents an analytical model for the vibration analysis of V-shaped beam electrothermal microactuators. With the consideration of the unique geometrical feature, i.e., the V-shaped beam with the two inclined half-spans interconnecting at the center of the beam, both lateral and longitudinal flexible deformations are included the vibration model established in this work. Furthermore, the vibrations in the lateral and longitudinal directions are coupled, therefore both the boundary and continuity conditions are defined to obtain the frequency equation. The natural frequencies can be calculated by solving the frequency equation numerically. To verify the established vibration model, the comparison is conducted between analytical results and finite-element (FE) simulation results using commercial software ANSYS. The comparison of the modal shapes and frequencies demonstrate the results based on the established analytical model well agree with FE simulation results. This work provides the first insight study on the vibration analysis of the V-shaped beam electrothermal microactuators with aims to lay the foundation of establishing thermo-mechanical model that could be used for the control of V-shaped actuators, and the improvement design in achieving optimal dynamic performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A020. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67517.

We present axially loaded clamped-guided microbeams that can be used as resonators and actuators of variable stiffness, actuation, and anchor conditions. The applied axial load is implemented by U-shaped electrothermal actuators stacked at one of the beams edges. These can be configured and wired in various ways, which serve as mechanical stiffness elements that control the operating resonance frequency of the structures and their static displacement. The experimental results have shown considerable increase in the resonance frequency and mid-point deflection of the microbeam upon changing the end conditions of the beam. These results can be promising for applications requiring large deflection and high frequency tunability, such as filters, memory devices, and switches. The experimental results are compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

Topics: Stiffness , Microbeams
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A021. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67875.

We present a mechanically coupled MEMS H resonator capable of performing simultaneous amplification and filter operation in air. The device comprises of two doubly clamped polyimide microbeams joined through the middle by a coupling beam of the same size. The resonator is fabricated via a multi-layer surface micromachining process. A special fabrication process and device design is employed to enable the device’s operation in air and to achieve mechanical amplification of the output response. Moreover, mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate a tunable wide band filter. The device design combined with the mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate simultaneous amplification and filtering in air.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: Micro/Nano Robotics and Manufacturing

2017;():V004T09A022. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67714.

The current miniaturization of several products requires manufacturing systems and methods able to meet the demanding specifications in terms of precision, efficiency, flexibility and reconfigurability. In particular, the manipulation and assembly of micro-components to obtain such products represent a crucial and challenging phase. For this reason, gripping tools have an essential role. At the micro-scale, the effects of adhesion forces can negatively affect the success and the precision of the manipulation operations, causing unexpected gripping or preventing the release of the components. Therefore, new micro-grippers and suitable release strategies have to be designed and developed to ensure high performance, overcoming the issues typical of the micro-scale. Among the different types of micro-grippers, vacuum micro-grippers represent a suitable tool to manipulate fragile and small components. In this context, this paper discusses different designs of an innovative vacuum micro-gripper integrating a simple and effective release system. The basic working principle is discussed and the related prototype is shown. Finally, a new design enhancement is also introduced to extend its applicability and release capability.

Topics: Vacuum , Design , Grippers
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A023. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-68107.

This paper describes a flexible automated soldering system to handle meso and micro-scale soldering operations. The system is guided by a vision system and consists of two micromanipulators, an XY motion stage, and a solder pen with an automatic solder feeder. One micromanipulator is used to hold and position the solder pen and attached solder feeder in the workspace; the second micromanipulator is used to hold and position the wire(s) to be soldered on to a printed circuit board (PCB). After hardware and vision system calibration, the user can select point(s) from a real-time image of the workspace for the desired soldering operations to occur. The soldering process is then carried out automatically two different ways: 1. By servoing the XY motion stage with the PCB to position it under the soldering manipulator followed by the solder operation; or 2. By moving the soldering manipulator to the target soldering sites on the PCB that remain stationary. Experimental results for both scenarios are presented and discussed for soldering single and multiple wires at a time. This system provides a flexible manufacturing solution for operations that demand custom micro-soldering operations in a 2D plane.

Topics: Soldering
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

11th International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems: Microscale Energy Harvesting

2017;():V004T09A024. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67711.

In this paper, a strategy utilizing a pair of cylinders which are put on both sides of the cantilever beam and perpendicular to the water flow direction to harvest the energy is demonstrated. The novel flow-induced structure-based energy harvester consists of a pair of inducing objects (cylinders) and one L-type cantilever beam. Macro fiber composite (MFC) is attached at the fixed end of the cantilever beam to convert the kinetic energy into electric power. The structure could induce the vortex shedding from the upstream flow and harvest the energy from it. Compared with the former studies regarding one or series layout inducing objects, the proposed structure could both improve the power output of the flow-induced energy harvester and avoid the damage happening in complex working conditions. Analytical modelling and experiment methods are both utilized in the research to cross verify the results. The characteristics related with water flow speed and center distance variations between inducing objects are discussed in the paper as well. It is found that when the water flow speed is 0.2m/s and the center distance is 30mm, the output power is optimal of 0.16μW and the power density is 0.4mW/m2.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2017;():V004T09A025. doi:10.1115/DETC2017-67981.

PZT nanofibers are piezoelectric and can produce a relatively high electrical output under strain that is useful for self-powered nanogenerators. To obtain maximum power output from these devices, their internal impedance needs to be matched with their applicable load impedance. Electrical impedance measurements of PZT nanofibers were performed using a variety of methods over a frequency spectrum ranging from DC to 3.0 GHz. These methods include Conductive AFM and Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy. Nanofibers formed by electro-spinning with diameters ranging from 3 to 150 nm were collected and measured. The nanofiber impedance was extremely high at low frequency, decreased considerably at higher frequency and varied with nanofiber diameter as well. The results are applicable for the analysis of many types of nanogenerators and nanosensors including those produced at Stevens.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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