0

IN THIS VOLUME


General

1962;():V001T01A001. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-1.
FREE TO VIEW

In the autumn of 1955 the Swedish State Power Board decided to build a gas-turbine central at Vätervik on the Swedish East Coast, which would be utilized as a dry-year and peak-load plant and to be run for phase compensation to diminish transmission losses. Heavy fuel oil burning, low first cost, minimum personnel requirement, quick start even from “dead station,” possibility to arrange remote operation and an acceptable noise level were all of importance. It was found, that the size of the State power system as well as the over-all economy called for a large gas turbine. The De Laval Ljungstrom Company submitted plans for a 40-mw, three-shaft arrangement with a simple, intercooled cycle and a free-running power turbine, which was accepted for completion in the fall of 1959. 1770 hours of operation have been accumulated in the station as of May 1, 1961, and the present paper gives a general description thereof and a discussion on the initial operational experience.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A003. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-3.
FREE TO VIEW

This paper describes the design of a turbine-compressor set in the 400–500 kw power range for use in the ML-1 mobile nuclear power plant. The specification and design problems are discussed in terms of mechanical design and aerodynamic performance. The open-cycle test facility is also described and the results of open-cycle testing are surveyed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A004. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-4.
FREE TO VIEW

This paper describes the use of gas-turbine propulsion systems in hydrofail seacraft. Background information on the early hydrofoil developments is presented, as well as discussions of the factors affecting choice of power plants, economics of operation, and the practical considerations involved with respect to marine environments, installation requirements, and engine characteristics. Descriptions of turbine-powered hydrofoil craft are also included.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A005. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-5.
FREE TO VIEW

This paper presents a review of the progress made by the investment casting foundries in producing integrally-cast airfoil components for small gas-turbine engines. The casting process, from pattern production to the final inspection operations, is discussed in detail. Suggested dimensional tolerances, based on the present state of the art, are included. Finally, the properties and casting characteristics of various alloys commonly used for internal components are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A006. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-6.
FREE TO VIEW

The need for a small bleed-off gas-turbine engine arose when the large turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines were introduced into military service. The problem of starting turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines became more acute as the starting power requirements began to exceed the practical weight and size limits of electric starters. As a result, development of a pneumatic starting system was undertaken. To make the low-pressure air starter practical, it was necessary to have a small, lightweight source of compressed air. The small gas-turbine bleed-off compressor unit was developed for this purpose. This paper describes the development procedure and details of this type engine as it now stands. So far only a few thousand units have been produced, but cost reductions are expected as use for these small gas-turbine engines increases.

Topics: Engines , Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A007. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-7.
FREE TO VIEW

In the aircraft industry, the evolution from the DC-3 to the DC-7 was a rather slow-paced progression. How then did we suddenly produce such aircraft as the DC-8 and the Convair 880?

Topics: Jet engines , Aircraft
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A008. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-8.
FREE TO VIEW

This paper gives a brief description of the Volvo experimental turbine, its working cycle, its basic components and their relative arrangement as well as some of the basic thinking behind the selection of the same. The paper also gives a short description of the new concept of a dual-geared power turbine, the combined reduction gear and high-speed hydrodynamic retarder, as well as some other new features incorporated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A009. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-9.
FREE TO VIEW

Efficiencies up to 94 per cent may be achieved with radial, mixed, or axial-flow turbines using either compressible or incompressible fluids. Such high performances are possible only if specific speeds are within certain limits and criteria with respect to Reynolds number and Mach number are favorable. All three types are applicable with no efficiency disadvantage at low and medium specific speeds. For specific speeds above certain limits, radial-inflow turbines tend to be less efficient. In the medium-specific-speed range, a form of radial-inflow turbine having straight radial blade elements has special interest for compressible-fluid applications. Efficiencies in the 90–94 per cent regime have been demonstrated. Stress characteristics are such that for high temperatures and proper specific-speed ranges, higher heads per stage may be used efficiently in one stage than is possible with a single-stage axial turbine.

Topics: Fluids , Turbines , Inflow
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A010. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-10.
FREE TO VIEW

The application required large electrical load changes with very limited variations in frequency and voltage. With a dual-shaft gas turbine, nominal rating 8000 kilowatts, instantaneous loads up to 90 per cent rated were successfully accepted and rejected with frequency maintained within a one and one half per cent band. Voltage variation did not exceed four per cent. Frequency and voltage recovery were well within two seconds. The foregoing was accomplished by incorporating a control system which permitted operation of the turbine at other than normal operating conditions when auxiliary control valves were preset in anticipation of the load variation. The auxiliary control valves were air-inlet throttling valves, an inter-turbine bleed valve, and an additional fuel valve. The basic machine consisted of a 15-stage axial compressor, a two-stage, high-pressure turbine, and a two-stage power turbine. The unique requirements necessitated off-design operation and considerable extrapolation from known test data. However, it was possible to program the control-system components so that a conventional pneumatic control system was capable of maintaining speed within the prescribed band even though the applied load varied from that anticipated by as much as 12.5 per cent.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A011. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-11.
FREE TO VIEW

There has been much discussion as to how the single-shaft gas turbine compares with a two-shaft turbine as a prime mover for natural gas pipeline operations. Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company has a compressor station at Savannah, Tenn., with a single-shaft and two-shaft turbine driving centrifugal compressors in series. This provides an excellent opportunity for comparison of the two types of turbines.

Topics: Compressors , Turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A012. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-12.
FREE TO VIEW

Today many utilities are confronted with the problem of increasing their generating capacity to shave system peaks. By the nature of being a complete power cycle, the gas turbine appears as an attractive prime mover in this type application. This paper describes a 22-mw decentralized gas-turbine generating station designed specifically for peaking service. The philosophy of the design of the equipment and its arrangement in the plant is included along with a description of its control and operation.

Topics: Design , Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A013. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-13.
FREE TO VIEW

A description of a 750-kw emergency and standby electric-generator set as installed in the USS Oklahoma City. Operating experience is summarized. The 1100-hp gas turbine in this set is the largest installed in a U. S. Naval combat ship.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A014. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-14.
FREE TO VIEW

This paper describes the first completely gas-turbine powered stations used for supplying primary power for military installations. The stations, with one exception, are equipped with waste-heat boilers which supply steam for use in all heating including barracks. Gas turbines were specified as the most economical means of satisfying the electric power and central heating requirements. The stations are completely self-contained with no connection to any commercial power. The gas turbines, with one exception, use natural gas as the primary fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel as standby fuel. Changeover to liquid fuel is automatic. Change back to gas is manual.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A015. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-15.
FREE TO VIEW

Since the inception of Pan American’s jet operations, the JT-4 and JT-3 jet engines have logged over 1,200,000 engine hours. During the period of operation to December 1, 1961, a total of 2083 engines were changed. Seventy-eight per cent of the JT-4’s removed were planned, as were 71 per cent of JT-3 removals. The author discusses some of the experiences which have occurred in the use and overhaul of these engines.

Topics: Jet engines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A016. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-16.
FREE TO VIEW

The turbojet engine JT3C-6 and JT3C-7 entered commercial service on American Airlines Boeing 707/720 Aircraft after a considerable period of experience resulting from military J57 operation. Although the commercial operation uncovered problem areas, the causes were defined and the engine reliability and serviceability responded to various improvement programs. The time between overhauls (TBO) increased from 800 to 2100 hr at a rate unparalled in commercial engine operation. The turbofan is now going through a period of commercial “growing pains.” Problems have resulted from higher thrust, use of new materials, higher temperatures within and outside the engine, complexities of a fan air-thrust reverser, and so on. The airframe and engine manufacturers have defined these problems and together with the commercial operators are engaged in programs to insure performance and reliability compatible with the tremendous success of the first generation JT3C-6 and JT3C-7 turbojets.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A017. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-17.
FREE TO VIEW

Three years ago a survey was made of the various prime movers available to the pipeline industry for gas compression. This survey included gas turbines and two and four-cycle reciprocating gas engines. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the existing equipments would be most economical and whether or not there was a need for the development of additional equipment. As a result of this economic study, it appeared there was a definite requirement in the industry for a high-speed, low-cost, gas turbine-centrifugal compressor unit for both field and main-line-station gas compression. As a result of the studies two gas-turbine-driven centrifugal compressor units were placed in operation early in 1960 at Cypress Station near Houston, waste-heat recovery systems being installed in the summer of 1961. Performance tests were satisfactory and subsequently six small gas-engine-driven compressor units have been installed at two main-line compressor stations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1962;():V001T01A018. doi:10.1115/62-GTP-18.
FREE TO VIEW

El Paso discusses the philosophy of uprating older gas turbines by taking advantage of the continuous progress being made in turbine design. This paper describes El Paso’s uprating of two General Electric gas turbines and includes the feasibility study, modificaton required and operating experience.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In