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Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels

1981;():V002T05A001. doi:10.1115/81-GT-52.
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Experiments using cascades and small turbines have been conducted or are being considered to simulate large utility turbine operation with future coal-fired power plants. The purpose of these experiments is to evaluate utility turbine tolerances to particulates and to determine gas cleanup requirements for successful turbine performance. Since these tests do not fully reproduce the flow and erosion conditions in large utility turbines, this paper explores the interpretation of data from simulation experiments to assess erosion in large utility turbines. Effects of physical scale, rotation speed, and pressure differences between test cascades and small test turbines and large utility turbines are considered.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A002. doi:10.1115/81-GT-53.
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Trajectories of small coal ash particles encountered in coal-fired gas turbines are calculated with an improved computer analysis currently under development. The analysis uses an improved numerical grid and mathematical spline-fitting techniques to account for three-dimensional gradients in the flow field and blade geometry. The greater accuracy thus achieved in flow field definition improves the trajectory calculations over previous two-dimensional models by allowing the small particles to react to radial variations in the flow properties. A greater accuracy thus achieved in the geometry definition permits particle rebounding in a direction perpendicular to the blade and flow path surfaces rather than in a two-dimensional plane. The improved method also accounts for radial variations in airfoil chord, stagger, and blade thickness when computing particle impact at a blade location.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A003. doi:10.1115/81-GT-54.
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A theory is presented to predict deposition rates offineparticles in two-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows. The mathematical model developed accounts for diffusion due to both molecular and turbulent fluctuations in the boundary layer flow. Particle inertia is taken into account in establishing the condition on particle flux near the surface. Gravitational settling and therm are not considered. The model assumes that the fraction of particles sticking upon arrival at the surface is known, and thus, treats it as a given parameter. The theory is compared with a number of pipe and cascade experiments, and a reasonable agreement is obtained. A detailed application of the model to a turbine is also presented. Various regimes of particle transport are identified, and the range of validity of the model is discussed. An order of magnitude estimate is obtained for the time the turbine stage can be operated without requiring cleaning.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A005. doi:10.1115/81-GT-65.
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A description of a test facility established by the University of Pittsburgh under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy for (he purpose of obtaining dynamic and static test data on the erosion-corrosion characteristics of candidate materials being considered in support of the Department of Energy’s High Temperature Turbine Technology Program. The goal of this program is to establish a gross relationship between the gas turbine materials and the coke oven gas fuel being furnished by the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. 24-7 gas turbine engines reconfigured to burn gaseous fuel. The engines have been furnished by the Department of Defense on a loan basis. The facility is currently operational with data being obtained on INCO-713 rotor material whichis the material currently used in the 24-7 engines. Other materials and coatings will be evaluated.

Topics: Fuels , Coal , Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A006. doi:10.1115/81-GT-66.
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This paper presents the results of three significant tests recently performed by GE under the DOE High Temperature Turbine Technology Phase II Program contract. The first test involved a simulated Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) test of a water-cooled composite nozzle exposed to low Btu coal gas at design operating conditions (2600 F + firing temperature, 12 atm pressure). The second test is that of a water-cooled monolithic nozzle, a full-scale model of the second-stage nozzle planned for the Technology Readiness Vehicle Verification Test. The third test demonstrates coolant water delivery, transfer, and metering distribution, from the stationary feed line to the turbine rotor, enroute to individual bucket airfoil coolant passages. These tests successfully demonstrated the IGCC operation with very good results, and show every indication that operation at firing temperatures up to 3000 F is well within the design capability of the water-cooled turbine.

Topics: Gas turbines , Water
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A007. doi:10.1115/81-GT-67.
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Extensive thermodynamic and preliminary experimental studies have identified the potential use of aluminosilicate materials to simultaneously remove volatile alkali and particulate released during pressurized gasification of coal. The gettering capacity of three selected materials have been evaluated in a bench-scale reactor operating at 1114 kPa total pressure and 1123–1173K in alkali-laden inert, and simulated fuel gas environments. At 1123 K, alkali gettering has been established to result through reaction within the amorphous acid-insoluble alumino-silicate fraction of these materials, while at 1173 K saturation of the insoluble matrix is achieved, with gettering occurring mainly through acid-soluble complexes. The gettering mechanism as either a chemical reaction or a physical adsorption phenomenon and reaction kinetics will be delineated through future thermogravimetric (TG) analyses.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A008. doi:10.1115/81-GT-68.
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Near term application of water cooling to stage 1 nozzles on present day gas turbines results in significant improvements in fuel flexibility and performance. Design and performance calculations for application of a water-cooled stage 1 nozzle are compared to an air-cooled stage 1 nozzle in a heavy duty gas turbine. The results of ash deposition tests of both air-cooled and water-cooled nozzles using simulated residual fuel are presented for firing temperatures of 1850°F and 2050°F. This work was jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and General Electric under the Advanced Cooling, Full-Scale Engine Demonstration Program.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T05A009. doi:10.1115/81-GT-198.
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One key to the production of clean, efficient electricity from the combustion of coal-derived fuels is an advanced design, combined-cycle power conversion system. A major element in this system is a gas turbine which can operate at temperatures over 2600 F (1427 C) on synthetic fuels containing both erosive and corrosive species. A concept which can effectively deal with both the high gas temperature and the aggressive atmosphere is Transpiration-Air-Cooling (TAC). TAC turbine vanes and blades utilize a load carrying strut, and a porous metal airfoil through which a protective barrier of cooling air diffuses. Materials engineers are continually seeking alternate materials for the porous airfoil which offer opportunities for further improving TAC turbine efficiency, without sacrificing durability. This paper describes results obtained from tests performed in a corrosion-erosion rig operated under the DOE sponsored HTTT Program. The rig evaluated a series of TAC airfoil materials in a high temperature turbine synfuel environment.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Combustion and Fuels

1981;():V002T06A001. doi:10.1115/81-GT-2.
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In the future, aircraft turbine engines may be required to accommodate fuels with lower hydrogen contents, fluidity/volatility characteristics and thermal stability ratings than those of present-day jet fuels. The key results of several investigations conducted to quantify the impacts of such fuel property changes on the performance, pollutant emission and durability characteristics of aircraft turbine engine combustors are reviewed. These results were obtained in both component and engine tests of the current production combustors used in the CF6-6, CF6-50, F101/CFM56 and J79/CJ805 engines. Based on these results, it is concluded that the most significant concerns associated with such fuel property changes are decreased combustor life, decreased ground starting/altitude relight capabilities and increased fuel injector gumming/coking tendencies. The combustor design improvements that appear to be needed to permit the use of jet fuels of significantly lower quality than present-day fuels are also reviewed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A009. doi:10.1115/81-GT-44.
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Combustion at inlet-air temperatures of 1100 to 1250 K was studied for application to advanced automotive gas turbine engines. Combustion was initiated by the hot environment, and therefore no external ignition source was used. Combustion was stabilized without a flameholder. The tests were performed in a 12-cm-diameter test section at a pressure of 2.5 × 105 Pa, with reference velocities of 32 to 60 m/s and at maximum combustion temperatures of 1350 to 1850 K. Number 2 diesel fuel was injected by means of a multiple-source fuel injector. Unburned hydrocarbons emissions were negligible for all test conditions. Nitrogen oxides emissions were less than 1.9 g NO2/kg fuel for combustion temperatures below 1680 K. Carbon monoxide emissions were less than 16 g CO/kg fuel for combustion temperatures greater than 1600 K, inlet-air temperatures higher than 1150 K, and residence times greater than 4.3 ms.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A010. doi:10.1115/81-GT-45.
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Operating experience has established the ability of gas turbines and combined cycles to utilize heavy fuel oils for power generation economically and reliably. The technical factors related to operation of gas turbines on heavy oils are discussed and installation and operating costs are developed for each of these factors for economic evaluation. Factors influencing heavy oil use include fuel specifications and treatment to prevent corrosion of hot parts, the effects of ash deposition on turbine nozzles and buckets and on boiler heat transfer surface, turbine and boiler cleaning techniques and their use for maintaining capability, and downtime for cleaning.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A011. doi:10.1115/81-GT-46.
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Substantial improvements to reduce emissions have been obtained by modifying conventional burner designs. However, to satisfy EPA and applicable local NO, emissions regulations without water or steam injection, an approach which avoids diffusion controlled combustion must be found. This paper describes an analytical design study conducted to integrate a lean, premixing, prevaporizing burner concept into a silo combustor which combines the benefits of the low emissions dry NO, system with those of the off board combustor design philosophy. This low emissions system permits a high degree of vaporization and homogeneity prior to combustion and ease of staging individual fuel injectors to cover the operating range of a single shaft gas turbine.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A012. doi:10.1115/81-GT-47.
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The effects of combustor inlet conditions and primary zone water injection on gaseous emissions levels of an industrial gas turbine, burning diesel fuel and natural gas, are presented herein. A comparison of reduced-flow combustor rig emissions and engine emissions is made to verify existing inlet condition correlations for thermal oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons, and to develop new empirical correlations. Engine tests were conducted over a range of water flow rates and loads, and resultant data was used to develop relationships between combustor exit temperature, water injection rate, and gaseous emissions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A013. doi:10.1115/81-GT-48.
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The latest stage in the evaluation of a dual fuel industrial combustion chamber is reported. The design, fitting and maintability of the cans and fuel injectors is described. The performances studied are can wall temperatures, ignition and environment air pollution. The latter cover NO, NO2, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, smoke and solids. Those have been measured over a range of engine power settings, and also over a range of water injection ratios into the combustion chambers. Full engine performance was accordingly measured.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A014. doi:10.1115/81-GT-49.
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Ignition performance of liquid fuel spray at various fuel/air ratios and the effect of gaseous fuel addition on ignition improvement were investigated on a gas turbine combustor test facility. Distribution of fuel/air ratio with gaseous fuel addition through the spark plug and the fuel nozzle into the flame tube was measured respectively. The universal ignition criterion derived from developed thermal explosion physical model at maximum chemical reaction rate for heterogeneous mixture ignition and the empirical formula of evaporation coefficient in fuel spray are in good agreement with experimental data obtained in dense and dilute fuel spray, and homogeneous mixture.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A015. doi:10.1115/81-GT-50.
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Combustion tests with a gas turbine combustor were carried out to clarify the technical problems caused when liquefied butane was supplied and burned in the liquid phase in addition to evaluating methanol and liquefied butane as an alternative fuel. For methanol, a conventional dual-orifice type fuel injector, and for liquefied butane, the same dual-orifice type injector and two types of multi-hole injectors were tested. The results of combustion tests with both fuels were compared with those of conventional gas turbine fuels — kerosene and natural gas with respect to combustion performances and exhaust emissions. It was found that both fuels had some advantages over conventional fuels.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A016. doi:10.1115/81-GT-51.
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A total of five combustion tests utilizing water injection for control of NO, emissions have been conducted on three types of coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels from the H-Coal and SRC II processes along with a shale-derived liquid (SDL) fuel supplied by the Radian Corporation. Actual testing was performed in a 0.14 m diameter gas-turbine-type combustor. For comparative purposes, each run with a synthetic liquid fuel was preceded by a baseline run utilizing No. 2 distillate oil. The effectiveness of water injection was found to decrease as the fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content of the synthetic liquids increased.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A018. doi:10.1115/81-GT-82.
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This paper describes the development history of the CW352 engine combustor from the time when the persistent problem of a hot primary zone wall when operating in the regenerative mode while burning diesel oil was solved by the incorporation of an airblast atomizer. The problems of stability and poor atomization at low engine cranking speeds which accompany the use of airblast atomizers were addressed in the combustion laboratory but evaluation tests on an engine showed that further improvement in these areas would be beneficial. Concurrently, the preliminary design strategy of the CW182 combustor was predicted on the use of an airblast atomizer and its development program emphasized a phase of testing which examined the effects on nozzle performance of variations in local flowfield and of the use of atomizing air. The paper documents the particular problems met and solved in the areas of burning oil fuel in a regenerative machine, of maintaining low emissions of smoke while designing for single inventory of parts and providing stable combustion by the use of auxiliary atomizing air.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A019. doi:10.1115/81-GT-87.
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The pressures within the U.K. to mount a large and rapid program on future fuels are minimal because of its off-shore oil fields. However, as a major exporter of aircraft engines which operate worldwide, some work has proceeded over the past five years to determine the impact of a deteriorating fuel specification. Much of this work has been aimed at the industrial uses of aircraft using diesel fuel as the alternative to kerosine. Trends have been established for emissions (gaseous and black smoke) which agree with data published by other observers. However rig data at high pressures (>20 Bars) from a tubular combustor suggest that increases in liner temperatures may not have as great an impact on combustor life as some have concluded. General comments on the production of “white smoke” at sub-idle conditions and the impact of reduced thermal stability are included.

Topics: Fuels
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A020. doi:10.1115/81-GT-99.
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The work described in this paper is a part of the DOE/ LeRC “Advanced Conversion Technology Project” (ACT). The program is a multiple contract effort with funding provided by the Department of Energy, and technical program management provided by NASA LeRC. Testing has been done burning a petroleum distillate fuel (ERBS fuel), a coal derived fuel (SRC II middle distillate), a petroleum residual fuel, and various blends of these fuels. Measurements are made of NOx CO, and UHC emissions, and other measurements are made to evaluate combustor performance. Results to date indicate that rich-lean diffusion flames, with low fuel bound nitrogen conversion, are achievable with very high combustion efficiencies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A021. doi:10.1115/81-GT-108.
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The work described in this paper is a part of the DOE/ LeRc “Advanced Conversion Technology Project” (ACT). The program is a multiple contract effort with funding provided by the Department of Energy and Technical Program Management provided by NASA LeRc. It is anticipated that future industrial gas turbine engines will require fuel flexibility. The emphasis in this paper is the fuel flexible combustor technology developed under the “Low NOx Heavy Fuel Combustor Concept Program” for application to the Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA) Model 570-K industrial gas turbine engine. The technology, to achieve emission goals, emphasizes dry NO, reduction methods. Due to the high levels of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) control of NOx can be effected through a staged combustor with a rich initial combustion zone. A RICH/QUENCH/LEAN (RQL) variable geometry combustor is the technology that will be presented to achieve low NO, from alternate fuels containing FBN. The results will focus on emissions and durability for fuel flexible operation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A022. doi:10.1115/81-GT-109.
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The work described in this paper is a part of the Department of Energy/Lewis Research Center (DOE/LeRC) “Advanced Conversion Technology” (ACT) project. The program is a multiple contract effort with funding provided by the Department of Energy and technical program management provided by NASA. LeRC. Environmentally acceptable operation with minimally processed petroleum based heavy residual and coal derived synthetic fuels requires advanced combustor technology. The technology described in this paper was developed under the DOE/ NASA Low NOx Heavy Fuel Combustor Concept Program (Contract DEN3-145). Novel combustor concepts were designed for dry reduction of thermal NOx, control of NOx from fuels containing high levels of organic nitrogen, and control of smoke from low hydrogen content fuels. These combustor concepts were tested by burning a wide variety of fuels including a middle distillate (ERBS), a petroleum based heavy residual, a coal derived synthetic (SRC-II), and various ratios of blends of these fuels.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A023. doi:10.1115/81-GT-119.
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A procedure has been developed for predicting the formation of NOx in gas turbine combustion systems operating at various conditions and on a variety of fuels, if the NOx produced by that engine is known for any one combination of fuel and operating condition. The predictions are based on a fundamental relationship between NOx formation and flame temperature with empirical adjustments for the special cases of fuel changes and water injection. Engine data indicate that the predictions are accurate within the data scatter limits that are normally encountered in engine field measurements. This work is not intended as a new kinetic model of NOx formation but rather as a useful tool for the engineer who has to predict what his engine will do under conditions where it has not yet been tested. It divides the NOx formation process into factors measurable by the engineer, i.e., flame temperature, pressure, and fuel flow rate, and shows how each of these contributes to the overall NOx in a predictable way.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A025. doi:10.1115/81-GT-129.
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Results of an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic performance of a split duct annular combustor inlet diffuser system are presented. Several diffuser configurations were investigated in 3X-scale water table tests and the preferred design was evaluated in full-scale annular airflow model tests. Pressure recovery and flow losses were determined as a function of prediffuser inlet velocity profile, flow extraction at the prediffuser exit, and distribution of flow in the combustor. Inlet velocity profile and turbulence levels were found to have a pronounced effect on system performance. Flow extraction at the prediffuser exit was found to have little influence on system performance. Generally, the annular split duct diffuser system was found to satisfy the performance objectives for the engine.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A026. doi:10.1115/81-GT-134.
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As a part of the United States Department of Energy’s High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is participating in a Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Materials Study. The objective is to create a technology base for ceramic materials for use in stationary gas power turbines operating in a high-temperature environment produced by combustion of low-caloric, coal-derived gas. Dynamic and Static Test facilities are designed and installed which have the capability to burn a varying low-caloric, coal-derived fuel gas in a controlled manner. This paper gives a description of METC’s design philosophies in developing these combustion test facilities.

Topics: Combustion , Coal
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A027. doi:10.1115/81-GT-141.
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Studies have been conducted at Engelhard Research Laboratories under an EPRI sponsored subcontract from Westinghouse to experimentally determine performance characteristics of Catcom* catalysts at simulated gas turbine combustion conditions using No. 2 fuel. A comparison study was carried out using a 1-in. diameter laboratory reactor and a 9-in, diameter burner. 5-in. and 6-in, catalysts lengths were tested in the laboratory reactor and the 6-in, length in the burner. Effects of vitiated versus indirect preheat were investigated together with varying adiabatic flame temperature (based on fuel/air ratios), catalyst inlet reference velocity and catalyst length. Process variable upset conditions were simulated in the 9-in, burner and over fueling was simulated in the 1-in. reactor. The temperature profiles, combustion efficiencies and pressure drop data obtained can be used to assess performance of anticipated catalytic combustor designs for gas turbine systems. These results continue to show that CATCOM catalysts and the Catathermal* mode of combustion can be applied practically to large scale gas turbine equipment.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A028. doi:10.1115/81-GT-157.
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The work described in this paper is a part of the Department of Energy/Lewis Research Center Advanced Conversion Technology (ACT) Project. The program is a multiple contract effort with funding provided by the DOE and technical management provided by the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Continued development of combustion technology is needed to provide utility and industrial gas turbine engines capable of sustained, environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed and synthetic fuels. This paper describes an exploratory development effort to identify, evaluate and demonstrate techniques for controlling emissions of Nox and smoke from combustors of stationary gas turbine engines. Preliminary results indicate rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal derived liquid fuels.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A029. doi:10.1115/81-GT-158.
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A conceptual design study was conducted to devise and evaluate techniques for the external vaporization of fuel for use in an aircraft gas turbine with characteristics similar to the Energy Efficient Engine (E3). A second purpose of the study was to select the most favorable fuel vaporization concept. In the study, three candidate concepts were analyzed from the standpoint of fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The results of the study indicate that an external vaporization system can be devised for an E3 -type engine with hardware of reasonable size. The hardware can be packaged without increasing the total engine volume and the system is not unduly complex. The selected concept offers potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight. However, the vaporizer is subject to fouling with deposits formed at the walls exposed to heated fuel.

Topics: Fuels
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T06A030. doi:10.1115/81-GT-187.
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The mechanism of gas turbine vanadium inhibition is discussed as well as corrosion, hot gas path deposition and exhaust gas emissions. A cost comparison is presented for the various types of inhibition based on a typical power plant situation. A brief description is provided of three different kinds of inhibition systems. The aim of this paper is to provide the gas turbine user with a practical evaluation of the various inhibition processes.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Oil and Gas Applications

1981;():V002T07A001. doi:10.1115/81-GT-33.
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The paper presents an overview of the system employed to control the mainline gas turbines and crude oil pumps used on the 747 mile East-West Petroline. Various operating modes such as starting, stopping and fuel transfers for normal and emergency operation are discussed. Particular attention is focused on the various fuel systems as well as a review of the major design problem areas and solutions. The results of a system test and the integration of each unit into the overall pipeline control scheme are included for completeness.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A002. doi:10.1115/81-GT-131.
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Development of gas supplies in the far north has focused attention on the design and construction of transportation systems to carry this gas from these remote regions to the markets in the industrial areas of North America. The need for high reliability of operation in remote areas under extremes of climatic conditions raises many problems. Principal among these are cold weather operation, accessibility, maintenance, transportation, seismic risk and environmental considerations. It is for these and other reasons that the selection of equipment to operate in a northern environment has to be approached systematically and thoroughly to ensure that flow of gas from the fields to the markets may be maintained under all possible conditions is the most economic manner and without interruption.

Topics: Compressors , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A003. doi:10.1115/81-GT-140.
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As part of an extensive energy conservation program, Nova, an Alberta Corporation has purchased a portable evacuation or pulldown compressor. This unit can save much of the natural gas that was previously vented to atmosphere when sections of line were shut down for construction, maintenance or repair. In December, 1979 the company placed into service a 3000-kW pulldown package based upon an eight-stage intercooled centrifugal compressor powered by a two-shaft gas turbine. The unit is a complete trailer-mounted compressor station that can be set-up at a pipeline block-valve in only 4 hr. The pulldown can evacuate the isolated line section down to 1/5 of the original pressure, thereby saving some 75 percent of the high pressure gas. This paper will examine the advantageous economics of the pulldown compressor as well as outline its salient design and operating characteristics.

Topics: Compressors
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A004. doi:10.1115/81-GT-171.
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The paper describes the program to design and develop an efficient 6-MW simple open cycle gas turbine for service in gas compression, mechanical drive applications and power generation systems. The design philosophy of the package, a detailed description of the gas turbine, the component development programs together with their test results are presented. Plans for the introduction of the turbine package into field service in 1981 are outlined.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A005. doi:10.1115/81-GT-172.
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The gas turbine compression and power generation systems for the Statfjord B platform required custom designed systems and significant design efforts. This paper summarizes many of the studies performed and reviews the overall project scope. The engineering considerations are presented to assist other gas turbine users and designers with their application considerations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A006. doi:10.1115/81-GT-182.
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In the wake of gas compression offshore the problem of contamination of Seal Oil and Lube Oil systems by the process gas has posed particular problems. These difficulties stem chiefly from the uniqueness of the offshore situation, viz.: The inability to “waste” contaminated seals return because of an uncertain supply situation (oil inventory bunkered by boat) and the twin constraints of weight space restrictions imposed by offshore design. “In situ” treatment of relatively large volumes of contaminated Lube Oil and Seal Oil on offshore platforms is possible using the method described in this paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A007. doi:10.1115/81-GT-183.
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This report highlights many difficulties, covering a period of two years, of gas compressor commissioning in the Brent Field. It is intended to give an insight of the problems encountered, with the objective to, wherever possible, avoid repetition. It is in most cases the DESIGN STAGE, where the lessons learned should be implemented, because it is very often too difficult and sometimes impossible to make improvements in compressor modules of offshore platforms.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A008. doi:10.1115/81-GT-188.
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During the initial years of Gasunie’s existence, the early 60’s, a projection was made for the power required in various compressorstations in the grid. This projection was updated periodically and this paper reviews the 1977 update, focussing on the Ravenstein compressorstation. The main subject of the paper is the development of the design criteria for this update and the comparison with the reality of the 1979/1980 pumping season. It may be stated that the actual conditions of the pumping season have justified the selection of the criteria.

Topics: Design , Natural gas
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A009. doi:10.1115/81-GT-190.
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This paper describes the market research efforts which established the performance parameters, the design criteria and the product specification for a new 10,000 shp regenerative cycle gas turbine system which incorporates a two-stage intercooled centrifugal compressor and features a thermal efficiency which exceeds 43 percent.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A010. doi:10.1115/81-GT-192.
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The aero derived industrial gas generator has for many years been the source of power for pumping and electrical generation both onshore and offshore in many parts of the world. These lightweight units are operating in every conceivable climate and geographical location and as such have proved themselves particularly suitable for use in the harsh environment of the North Sea. The advantages of this type of unit for offshore operation are: compact size, high power to weight ratio lightweight modular construction, rapid black start capability, fast load change response, low onsite routine inspection/maintenance downtime, fast turn round heavy maintenance and speedy unit change out.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A011. doi:10.1115/81-GT-193.
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This paper outlines the field experience gained from the modular retrofitting of four gas turbine inlet systems with a second stage high efficiency media filter to reduce gas turbine fouling conditions. The original gas turbine inlet systems were furnished with inertial filters. Within a few thousand hours of operation considerable gas turbine performance loss had occurred. Field inspection revealed excessive fouling of the gas generator axial compressor sections, and crusty dust particle build up within the gas turbine internals and thermocouples. A second-stage high efficiency media filter was retrofitted, to capture the fine dust particles that passed through the inertial filters. Follow-up inspection of the two-stage filter systems, after about 8000 hr of operation, disclosed little indication of the engine fouling conditions that were present prior to the retrofitting.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T07A012. doi:10.1115/81-GT-217.
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A clear need exists for methods of establishing the validity of gas turbine performance test results and diagnosing the causes of performance problems. Published methods depend on the results of simulating faults in complex mathematical models of the engines and are only capable of diagnosing combinations of faults previously simulated. A very simple mathematical modelling procedure is described which allows the analyst to test his own hypothesis of engine faults and so identify instrumentation errors and discover conditions not previously considered. Application of modelling to actual test data is demonstrated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Cycle Innovations

1981;():V002T08A001. doi:10.1115/81-GT-13.
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In connection with the HHT-Project, the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research has performed an Optimization Analysis of the HHT-1640 MWth Demonstration Plant with a Closed Cycle Helium Turbine One Loop Concept with Intercooling. This paper gives a description of the analysed plant and the development of the optimization techniques utilized, followed by the presentation of results of both optimization and sensitivity analysis calculations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A002. doi:10.1115/81-GT-14.
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The thermal barrier inside the primary circuit of the direct-cycle, high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) may experience rapid depressurization transients. Turbine rotor failure induces the most severe pressure transient. To determine how rotor failure affects the design adequacy of the thermal barrier, the authors experimentally examined the venting characteristics of the fibrous insulation. This paper theoretically develops a simulation technique and correlates the analytical results with test data.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A004. doi:10.1115/81-GT-16.
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A gas turbine (GT) located within a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) induces high acoustic sound pressure levels into the primary coolant (helium). This acoustic loading induces high cycle fatigue stresses which may control the design of the thermal barrier system. This study examines the dynamic response of a thermal barrier configuration consisting of a fibrous insulation compressed against the reactor vessel by a coverplate which is held in position by a central attachment fixture. The results of dynamic vibration analyses indicate the effect of the plate size and curvature and the attachment size on the response of the thermal barrier.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A005. doi:10.1115/81-GT-17.
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There is increasing worldwide interest in fusion reactors as an energy source for electrical power generation. For such plants, which are projected for operation in the early decades of the 21st century, the choice of thermodynamic cycle for conversion of fusion reactor heat into electricity plays an important role in studies currently in the embryonic stage to evaluate performance, economics, safety, and operational features. A brief outline is given of some of the fusion reactor types currently under investigation. In this paper emphasis is placed on the utilization of a closed-cycle helium gas turbine power conversion system since its operational flexibility with regard to power and heat production and adaptability to economic dry cooling seem well suited to projected user energy needs of the future. The promise of an efficiency of over 50 percent (when operated in a binary cycle mode) makes the closed-cycle gas turbine an attractive power conversion system candidate as the goal of power production through a sustained fusion reaction in a confined plasma is realized. It is projected that the coupling of a closed-cycle gas turbine to a fusion reactor represents a challenging task for gas turbine engineers in the 21st century, and may be regarded as the ultimate application of the gas turbine prime-mover.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A006. doi:10.1115/81-GT-18.
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For power generation, steam cycles make an efficient use of medium temperature (•□ 300–600°C) heat sources. They can be adapted to dry cooling, higher power ratings and output increase in winter by addition of an ammonia bottoming cycle. Active development is carried out in this field by “Electricite de France.” It is shown that a satisfactory result, for heat sources of about 770°C, is obtained with a topping closed gas cycle of moderate power rating, rejecting its waste heat into the main steam cycle. Attention has to be paid to the gas turbine cycle waste heat recovery and to the coupling of the gas turbine and steam cycles. This concept drastically reduces the importance of new technology components.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A007. doi:10.1115/81-GT-19.
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The turbomachine is located within the primary coolant system of a nuclear closed cycle gas turbine plant (HTGR-GT). The deblading of the turbine can cause a rapid pressure equilibration transient that generates significant loads on other components in the system. Prediction of and design for this transient are important aspects of assuring the safety of the HTGR-GT. This paper describes the adaptation and use of the RATSAM program to analyze the rapid fluid transient throughout the primary coolant system during a spectrum of turbine deblading events. Included are discussions of (1) specific modifications and improvements to the basic RATSAM program, which is also briefly described; (2) typical results showing the expansion wave moving upstream from the debladed turbine through the primary coolant system; and (3) the effect on the transient results of different plenum volumes, flow resistances, times to deblade, and geometries that can choke the flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A008. doi:10.1115/81-GT-20.
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Because of its relatively high coolant temperature, the closed cycle gas turbine HTGR is well adapted to dry cooling and its waste heat can be rejected with relatively low cost. The preliminary design of natural-draft dry cooling towers for a 1200 MW(e) GT-HTGR is presented. The effects of air approach velocity, capacity rates of air and water mediums, and number of heat exchanger cross flow passes on salient tower and heat exchanger dimensions are studied. Optimum tower designs are achieved with three cross flow passes for the heat exchanger, resulting in a simultaneous minimization of tower height, heat exchanger surface area and circulating water pumping power. Four alternative tower designs are considered and their relative merits are compared. It is concluded that the 1200 MW(e) plant can be cooled by a single tower design which is well within the present state of the natural-draft dry cooling tower technology. In comparison, the fossil-fired or HTGR steam plants of the same output is shown to need three such towers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A010. doi:10.1115/81-GT-101.
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In fluid catalytic cracking plants, heavy hydrocarbons are converted into low-boiling point products. The highly developed technology of this process makes it particularly suitable for the handling of heavy fractions and thus for energy economy in the future. Starting from a concise description of the energy recovery system, this paper details the design features of a turbo machine set for an FCC plant, with the emphasis on the design of the 4-stage 12,000 kW process gas expander. Since this expander incorporates new design features, an extensive test programme was carried out at a heavy turbomachinery test facility, where, in addition to testing the individual machine units under full-load conditions, a string test of the complete turbo machine set was performed under hot-gas conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A011. doi:10.1115/81-GT-102.
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In gas-cooled solar power plants the radiant energy of the sun is transferred to the cycle fluid in a cavity type solar receiver and converted into electric energy by means of a combined gas and steam turbine cycle incorporating a waste heat steam generator. The design and optimization of the energy conversion system in accordance with solar-specific considerations are described with particular regard to the gas turbine. In designing the energy conversion system several variants on the combined cycle with waste heat steam generator are investigated and special measures for the improvement of the cycle efficiency, such as the refinement of the steam process through the addition of pressure stages are introduced. It is demonstrated that the solar power plant meets the requirements both for straight solar and constant load operation with fossil fuel substitution. In order to establish the possibilities of attaining high part-load efficiencies in straight solar operation, two modes, variable and constant speed of the gas turbine, are compared with one another.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A012. doi:10.1115/81-GT-113.
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A multitude of examinations and studies of compressor blades with 100 percent reaction have shown that tandem blades can advantageously be used in stationary industrial axial flow compressors, designed for applications in the chemical, iron and steel industries. Because there are no limitations for axial flow compressors with tandem blades, this type of compressor can operate up to maximum pressure ratios of 10 for suction volume flow of about 600,000 m3 /h. In particular, the handling of light gases, such as helium, leads also to large sizes. Based on measurements taken on a four-stage experimental compressor, criteria are developed for the design of axial flow compressors with tandem blades. The basic concept of a multi-stage industrial compressor provides for the combined arrangement of compressor stages of single and tandem-cascade design. This permits an optimum performance to be achieved at a considerable reduction of the constructional expenditure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A014. doi:10.1115/81-GT-133.
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A new numerical procedure has been developed to solve the meridional equations of motion in an axial flow turbomachine. It is based on the so-called streamline-curvature method. The primary aim of this project was to reduce the computing-time of existing programs. The procedure has been tested. The new program is coupled with a program for the calculation of end-wall-boundary layers on axial flow compressors. This combination makes the simulation of real flow conditions possible. The pitch wise deviation angles and blade-row efficiencies are generally given as input. For compressor blades of the NACA-65-family they can be called from stored empirical data as function of geometry and the upstream and downstream flow conditions. The paper presents an exact description of the numerical procedure and a computed example.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A015. doi:10.1115/81-GT-135.
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To evaluate the potential of the compressor of Sulzer’s Typ 3 gas turbine, a series of engine tests was analyzed with two computer codes. The comparison between measured and calculated performance map are given in the paper. The design goal was to find modifications, which can be applied easily to already operating engines. The simplest option-increase of shaft speed with the existing blades-would have caused high loss due to increased tip Mach number. The calculation revealed, that a newly designed first rotor blade is an appropriate modification to increase massflow and efficiency. No further change is required, because the calculations indicate, that all subsequent stages operate at near optimum incidence. The calculations were confirmed experimentally. The paper presents the new rotor blade and its influence on the compressor calculated and measured performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A016. doi:10.1115/81-GT-178.
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An ammonia bottoming cycle is under active development at Electricité de France. To be implemented in a nuclear power plant downstream from the steam cycle, shortened for this application, its purpose is to make it possible to practice air cooling in satisfactory economic conditions. After an analysis of the main parameters of the bottoming cycle (H2O/NH3) (i.e., back pressure and temperature differences in the heat exchangers) its advantages are enumerated: in addition to those the dry cooling concept, the major benefit consists of the fact that the bottoming cycle makes use of low atmospheric temperatures in winter, producing a significant increase in the power output, just when it is most needed in many geographic locations. Emphasis is placed on the experimental work performed on E.D.F. test facilities and the construction of a 20-MWe demonstration bottoming cycle power plant at Gennevilliers power station. A brief account is given of test results and experimental programs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A017. doi:10.1115/81-GT-200.
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The tubes for the receiver of a solar power plant are designed taking into account thermal and mechanical loads. The receiver transfers 60 MW of heat to the working medium of a closed cycle gas turbine, the medium being air. It is shown how the stress pattern in the tubes are influenced by the distribution of the locally absorbed heat flux, assuming linearly elastic deformation of the tube material. Criteria for the influence of the partially plastic behavior of the tubes are discussed for different distributions of the intensity of the absorbed heat flux.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A018. doi:10.1115/81-GT-201.
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An alternative solution for solar energy conversion to the heliostat-tower and solar farm (parabolic trough) concept is presented in the form of large parabolic dish collectors using small high temperature gas turbines for producing electricity from solar thermal energy. A cost and efficiency comparison for the different solar thermal power plants has shown that the large parabolic dish with gas turbine set is a superior system design especially in the net power range of 50 to 2000 kW. The important advantages of the large parabolic dish concept are discussed. For the important components such as the gas turbo converter, the receiver and the parabolic dish collector, design proposals for economic solutions are presented. An advanced layout for a 250-kW gas turbo converter with recuperator is presented in detail.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A019. doi:10.1115/81-GT-212.
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This paper discusses a current research and development program whose object is to advance the technical readiness of large, coal-fired heaters to supply the input to closed-cycle gas turbine cogeneration systems. Such closed-cycle systems become increasingly attractive as energy cost increase. The gas turbine working fluid is completely isolated from the products of coal combustion, thus avoiding corrosion and erosion of the gas turbine system. Additionally, the nature of the thermodynamic cycles is frequently such as to afford substantial savings in coal input requirements as compared to steam turbine based systems producing equivalent process heat and power. This paper describes three fired heater concepts that are under development for CCGT service. The organization of the research and development program, and the development needs of the fired heaters that are to be satisfied by the R&D program, are discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1981;():V002T08A020. doi:10.1115/81-GT-214.
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Technical aspects of utilization of gas turbines for district heating applications are discussed. Economic advantages of gas turbine plants for district heating loads below 700 MWt are presented. Use of gas turbines with steam turbines in different combinations are also discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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