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IN THIS VOLUME


General

1982;():V001T01A001. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-1.
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The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) has the potential to be one of the most efficient and environmentally acceptable methods of generating electric power. To date, the majority of IGCC concepts have been for new grass roots power plants located at a fictitious mid-western site and burning Illinois No. 6 coal. Under DOE-sponsorship, conceptual design studies were made of both a grass roots installation and a repowering of the Albany Plant of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. Both designs are based upon the use of Texaco gasifiers using a Western Pennsylvania coal. The estimated performance, economics and emissions are compared for these power plants.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A002. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-2.
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Due to limited reserves of crude oil and natural gas, it is generally accepted that fuel prices will continue to rise. Associated with cost increase is a strong possibility that quality of petroleum distillate fuels will deteriorate, particularly for power generation. Several techniques are available or are being developed to produce fuels from non-petroleum sources, including liquids and gases from coal and vegetation. Liquid fuels will fall into two categories: a synthetic distillate with lower hydrogen content and a significant amount of fuel-bound nitrogen unless further hydrogenation is carried out; and light alcohol fuels with lower calorific values than present distillates. Gases produced will vary considerably dependent on the process and original material, but a common factor will be medium to low calorific values in terms of Btu/scf and a tendency to have high inert gas content. The efficiency of energy conversion of various materials is higher when gas is produced (70–85%) than liquid (40–65%). The efficiency of conversion being the ratio of the available energy from the products to the input energy of the feed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A003. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-3.
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This paper describes the results of combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic-lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multi-annular swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperatures and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 Btu/Scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were found to be on the order of 4 to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 to 18 percent conversion efficiency when SRC-II liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium Btu gas (220 to 270 Btu/Scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. It is concluded that both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and ERBS fuel, and that all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A004. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-4.
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A number of test projects have measured the deposition rates of the combustion products of residual-oil-type fuel. This paper analyzes those results to obtain information on he effects of the gas and metal temperatures on the deposition rates. While the data is far from complete, certain major trends result from the data. For a given gas temperature, the deposition rate increases with decreasing metal temperature below the level of the gas temperature until a maximum rate is reached at ∼1200°F (650°C); then the deposition rate decreases as the metal temperature is further lowered and becomes small at metal temperatures near 700°F (370°C). For a given metal temperature, the deposition rate increases with higher gas temperatures. This may occur at an increasing rate for gas temperatures above 2000°F (1100°C).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A005. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-5.
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The EPRI projects for the development of water-cooled gas turbine power plants have been completed, while the DOE project on this subject (HTTT) is completing Phase II with little likelihood for further funding. This paper presents the prospects of water-cooled power plants as currently evaluated at EPRI. It is concluded that: water cooling designs for the stationary components are commercially ready, but technology development work is still required for the rotating components; water cooled turbines can have much lower ash deposition and corrosion rates than air cooled ones when firing on ash-containing fuels; water cooling provides considerable increase in specific power, but there is little advantage, if any, in efficiency compared to air cooling. The water-cooled gas turbine has its main attractiveness for operation with ash-containing fuels at base load. However, since this type of operation is not currently foreseen for American utility practice, the near-term continued development of the water-cooled gas turbine power plant is not expected to proceed.

Topics: Gas turbines , Water
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A006. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-6.
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A computer model for gas turbine blade cooling analysis has been developed. The finite difference technique over the chord and span of the blade is employed. A flow balance and an energy balance program are included in the model. The model is capable of predicting cooling flow characteristics (mass flow rate and internal pressure distribution) and metal temperature profiles of multipass coolant passages in rotating blades with local film cooling. The paper first presents the analytical model of coolant flow and heat transfer, then the computer program is discussed. Finally, the computed results of a sample blade at engine conditions is presented and discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A007. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-7.
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The Westinghouse combined cycle station design and development efforts have been continuing to respond to widespread User interest for the last twenty-five years. These combined cycle plants have accumulated considerable operating experience. The data base is currently available to confirm consistently high reliability and availability in the mature operating period. However, in order to achieve mature operation, a reliability/availability growth period must be considered in the planning of User and manufacturer. As evidenced by the data base, the scheduled outages continue to be the major availability detractor and this is the area that offers challenging opportunities to the User and manufacturer for future improvements.

Topics: Combined cycles
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A008. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-8.
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A key issue in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) is the durability of the gas turbine when operated on combustion gases containing coal ash, attrited sorbent bed material, and corrosive alkali compounds. The tolerance of industrial gas turbines to erosion by dust particles has been estimated based on data from a variety of sources which are reviewed briefly in this paper. It is shown, based on experimental data, that conventional cyclones can remove sufficient dust particles to meet the projected turbine erosion tolerance. In addition, advanced clean-up devices under development by the U.S. Department of Energy which would effectively remove gas turbine erosion as an issue in PFBC are described. An overview of ongoing materials work is presented which summarizes recent experimental results and assesses the suitability of existing and new turbine alloys to survive this environment. Particular attention is given to a PFB Long Term Materials Test currently in progress which will demonstrate materials corrosion resistance for exposure times up to 14,000 hr. Preliminary results from this test are discussed.

Topics: Gas turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A009. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-9.
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The fundamental characteristics and capabilities of the heavy duty gas turbine multiple combustor system are described. General configurations, combustor design and uprate capabilities and field operations are presented in Part I. Part II explores the emission characteristics and alternate fuels capability. It is shown that the multiple combustor system has the flexibility to be adopted to changing emission requirements, high temperature and airflows for better performance and different fuels at the same time providing easy field operations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A010. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-10.
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A one-dimensional monodisperse aerosol spray combustion facility is described and experimental results of post flame NO/NOx emissions are presented. Four different hydrocarbon fuels were studied: isopropanol, methanol, n-heptane, and n-octane. The results indicate an optimum droplet size in the range of 48–58 microns for minimizing NO/NOx production for all of the test fuels. This NOx behavior is associated with droplet interactions and the transition from diffusive type of spray burning to that of a prevaporized and premixed case. Decreasing the droplet size results in a trend of increasing droplet interactions, which suppresses temperatures and reduces NOx. This trend continues until prevaporization effects begin to dominate and the system tends towards the premixed limit. The occurrence of the minimun NOx point at different droplet diameters for the different fuels appears to be governed by the extent of prevaporization of the fuel in the spray, and is consistent with theoretical calculations based on each fuel’s physical properties.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A011. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-11.
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The ability of catalytic combustors to promote stable combustion of lean fuel-air mixtures with flame temperatures less than 1800K, provides the potential for obtaining ultra-low nitrogen oxides emissions levels in combustion systems utilizing catalytic reactors. Another potential benefit of the use of catalytic reactors is improved combustion system life due to the reduced gas temperatures in the combustion zone. In standard combustion systems with droplet burning, primary zone gas temperatures can reach stoichiometric flame temperature levels locally and radiation levels from the primary zone are relatively high. In a catalytic combustor, the gas temperature is at the much lower flame temperature value associated with the average premixed fuel-air ratio. Other potential benefits of catalytic combustors include improved turbine life because of much reduced pattern factors, improved temperature profiles and improved combustion lean stability.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A012. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-12.
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Under the “Advanced Cooling Full-Scale Engine Demonstration” Program, the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. is developing a combustor fabricated from Lamilloy, to be used in a Westinghouse W501 industrial combustion turbine on coal derived or residual fuel, which is aimed at using less cooling air and improving reliability.

A Full-Scale Rig Test Program of the Lamilloy combustor is being conducted at the Westinghouse Combustion Turbine Systems Division. Combustion rig tests have been performed on the full-size Lamilloy combustor on a low hydrogen coal-derived liquid and on standard #2 distillate fuel.

The Lamilloy combustor is a multiple laminate porous structure, formed from three diffusion bonded, etched Hastelloy-X sheets. Preliminary test results are given for both fuels and include wall temperatures, emissions and combustor performance for burner outlet temperatures up to 2200°F.

Acceptable wall temperature levels were obtained for both fuels, using cooling air flows below those required for the conventional film cooled design. Reduced cooling air requirements permitted larger diluent air flows and a corresponding reduction in pattern factor.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A013. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-13.
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This paper is a result of work done by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on a $1.8 million, 3 1/2 year study funded by DOE and EPRI.

The potential future market for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system is substantial. The savings realized by utilizing CAES power plants can be very attractive with the proper generation mix.

The thermodynamic parametric performance studies that were conducted to screen the various aquifer charging and discharging cycles are discussed. Equations are presented to directly calculate the optimum (minimum required total compressor work and air cooler heat rejection) intercooler(s) location for a compressor train utilizing one and two inter-coolers. An equation is also presented which directly determines the reheat combustor location required to maximize the turbine train output. A discussion is included why the performance of CAES power cycles must be optimized by considering the total power production energy costs not on a basis of maximum turbine output power or heat rate.

Hardware and economic considerations which lead to CAES LP turbomachinery component standardization are discussed. Such standardization allows a manufacturer to economically adapt its CAES turbomachinery to a range of different air storage pressures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A014. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-14.
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This paper describes the status of the developmental activities underway for advanced, utility-sized gas turbines. These long range, high risk activities initiated in the 1970s in response to the energy crisis situation, have not yet reached a sufficient maturity level to guarantee timely commercial implementation of the developing technology. Technological hurdles still remain to be addressed if the original programmatic goals are to be achieved and the efficiency, hence the economic, benefits are to be gained.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A015. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-15.
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The most important problems encountered in power plants are related to cold start-up, hot start-up, daily and seasonal variation in load. These problems are specially critical for high power units above 525°C and 10.5 MN/m2. As a result of higher thermal capacity of the thicker components in larger power units, the temperature gradient and thermal stresses assumed much higher values. It is, therefore, particularly important during transient operation conditions to know the temperature distribution and thermal stresses of rotors. One of the most common concerns is how fast can a turbine be started without significant damage. If the turbine is loaded very rapidly, high temperature gradient and excessive thermal stresses can easily damage the machine.

A concept was developed whereby an on-line computer was used to control the start-up and load variation operations of the turbine. The feasibility of such concept depends upon the knowledge of the instantaneous temperature distribution and thermal stresses of the turbine rotors. This paper presents a 2-D mathematical model of the transient temperature distribution as well as thermal stresses of the rotor. The mathematical model was simulated in the computer and ADI method was used for the solution of the governing equations. Discussions will be made of the procedure of coupling this mathematical model with on-line computer for optimum control of start-up and load variation schedule.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A016. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-16.
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Analytical and experimental procedures for determining the detailed internal flow behavior in the impeller of a centrifugal fan are presented. Predicted and measured values of both the detailed flow fields and overall performance of the impeller are shown to be in good agreement. The analytical procedures are based on a finite element method to predict the inviscid flow field, coupled to a semi-empirical determination of pressure losses in the impeller based on boundary layer calculations. The experimental work used to validate these predictions uses extensive surface pressure taps in the rotating impeller as well as information from inlet and discharge velocity traverses to determine overall performance. The purpose of this work is the development of accurate and reliable analytical tools for the design of air and gas moving equipment with improved performance and efficiency for the power utility market and heavy industrial applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A017. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-17.
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This effort summarizes the work performed under Task IV, Sector Rig Tests of the CRT - Critical Research and Support Technology Program, a Department of Energy funded project. The rig tests of a can-type combustor were performed to demonstrate two advanced ground power engine combustor concepts: steam cooled rich-burn combustor primary zones for enhanced durability; and variable combustor geometry for three stage combustion equivalence ratio control. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. Three degrees of variable geometry were successfully implemented to control airflow distribution within the combustor. One was a variable blade angle axial flow air swirler to control primary airflow while the other two consisted of rotating bands to control secondary and tertiary or dilution air flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A018. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-18.
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This paper deals with new moisture removal methods in wet vapor turbines of nuclear power stations: moisture separation effectiveness of turbine stages, and separators with freely rotating moving wheels. The stage moisture separators may be installed in the turbines of nuclear power stations; other applications include: the gas, chemical, and other branches of industry.

Topics: Turbines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A019. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-19.
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It is important that the requirements and cycle penalties related to the cooling of high temperature turbines be thoroughly understood and accurately factored into cycle analyses and power plant systems studies.

Various methods used for the cooling of high temperature gas turbines are considered and cooling effectiveness curves established for each. These methods include convection, film and transpiration cooling using compressor bleed and/or discharge air. In addition, the effects of chilling the compressor discharge cooling gas are considered.

Performance is developed to demonstrate the impact of the turbine cooling schemes on the heat rate and specific power of Combined–Cycle power plants.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A020. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-20.
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Full scale laboratory tests were performed by the Combustion Turbine Systems Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation to explore the feasibility of using catalytic burners in industrial combustion turbines to reduce emissions. Catalytic elements were provided by the Engelhard Industries Division of Engelhard Corporation, and No. 2 distillate fuel was burned in single combustor rig tests at the pressure, airflow, and inlet temperature equivalent to those in a large combustion turbine. Variations of a concept that employed a conventional preburner upstream of a catalytic secondary, and sidewall fuel injection were tested and evaluated for fuel/air presentation to the catalyst. Results indicated ultra-low NOx emissions and that, with development in secondary fuel/air preparation, the concept is technically feasible.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A021. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-21.
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Catalytic combustion has demonstrated the ability to provide low NOx emissions while maintaining high combustion efficiency. Recently, under joint NASA Lewis, EPA, and Acurex sponsorship, a catalytic reactor was tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate durability in combustion environments representative of advanced automotive gas turbine engines. At a 740K air preheat temperature and a propane fuel/air ratio of 0.028 by mass (ϕFA = 0.44), the adiabatic flame temperature was held at about 1700K. The graded cell monolithic reactor measured 5 cm in diameter by 10.2 cm in length and was operated at a reference velocity of 13.4 m/s at 1 atmosphere pressure. Measured NOx levels remained below 5 ppm while unburned hydrocarbon concentrations registered near zero and carbon monoxide levels were nominally below 20 ppm. The durability test included several parametric turndown studies and ended with a series of on/off cycling tests to further characterize reactor performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A022. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-22.
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The Navy Mobility Fuels Reference File is a computer searchable library of technical literature dealing with properties of synthetic and petroleum fuels and their effects on gas turbines, diesel engines, steam boilers, and fuel systems. It contains over 1800 technical reports, papers, and articles relating some aspect of fuel composition to some aspect of engine performance or operation. The system is available to qualified users through remote terminal devices compatible with Battelle’s CDC computer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A023. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-23.
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This report describes an experimental study to determine: (1) if catalytic combustion performance is degraded when steam is injected into the air-stream, and (2) if steam-assisted fuel injection might eliminate the upstream burning problems which have occurred in past studies of catalytic combustion of residual fuels.

Topics: Combustion , Steam
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A024. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-24.
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Laboratory tests of catalytic combustors with distillate fuel have achieved ultra low NOx formation at catalytic reactor exit temperatures and combustion efficiencies consistent with state-of-the-art gas turbine requirements. Concomitant with these features, however, are design limitations such as narrow turn down range and unique reactor mounting requirements. This paper presents fully analyzed conceptual design solutions to these problems within the constraints of fixed geometry, full catalytic combustion over 80% of the turbine load range, and retrofit to an existing gas turbine. The combustor design incorporates (a) a gutter stabilized pilot burner downstream of the reactor for operation from ignition to full speed no load, (b) a segmented fuel-air preparation system for fuel staging of the reactor, (c) a reactor mounting system which accommodates thermal growth and start-up and shutdown transients, and (d) a graded cell reactor. These features were achieved while maintaining low reactor face velocities and system pressure drops.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
1982;():V001T01A025. doi:10.1115/82-JPGC-GT-25.
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Lewis Research Center is currently evaluating catalytic combustion as part of the Critical Research and Advanced Technology Support Project sponsored by the D.O.E. Office of Fossil Energy, Division of Coal Utilization. Catalytic combustion has been shown to be capable of high combustion efficiency and low thermal NOx emissions when operated on fuels which contain negligible amounts of fuel-bound nitrogen (1,2). Catalytic combustion of residual fuels has also been reported in the literature (3 to 5). Premixing and prevaporizing the residual fuels was found to be a problem and a major drawback for their use as catalytic combustor fuels.

Topics: Combustion , Gases , Heating
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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