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ASME Conference Presenter Attendance Policy and Archival Proceedings

2014;():V005T00A001. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-NS5.
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This online compilation of papers from the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE2014) represents the archival version of the Conference Proceedings. According to ASME’s conference presenter attendance policy, if a paper is not presented at the Conference, the paper will not be published in the official archival Proceedings, which are registered with the Library of Congress and are submitted for abstracting and indexing. The paper also will not be published in The ASME Digital Collection and may not be cited as a published paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Applied Mechanics, Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

2014;():V005T05A001. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37472.

The engineering faculty at Roger Williams University are committed to training students to use modern computer-based tools when performing engineering analysis. But achieving this is a tall order, as engineering courses are already jam-packed with essential technical material and any hindrance to delivering this material is unwelcome. Likewise, we routinely pay lip service to the necessity for students to double-check their work, yet we provide students with few tools for systematically accomplishing this. This paper describes an effort by the author to integrate solid modeling into a Dynamics course by requiring numerical validation of symbolic solutions to homework problems. The students solve traditional homework problems using free-body diagrams, equations of motion, pencils and calculators; but then must demonstrate that their answers are valid through an independent check. Students construct solid models in SolidWorks© to duplicate the geometric and inertial properties of the problem, and then use the Motion Analysis, a SolidWorks Simulation add-in, to create a motion study duplicating the conditions of the problem. Students may place dynamically updating dimensions to determine distances or may generate graphs, e.g. velocity versus time, to study motion characteristics. As a direct result, students are able to independently validate their symbolic solutions with numerical simulations. This paper will provide a detailed description of the use of SolidWorks in a sophomore level Dynamics course offered spring 2012 and spring 2013. This paper will present examples of student work and assess the benefits and challenges associated with this teaching method.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A002. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37726.

Efforts have been made to develop various models to calculate the stress due to weight throughout tree branches. Most studies assumed a uniform modulus of elasticity throughout the branch as well as analyzing the branch as a tapered cantilever beam orientated horizontally or at an angle. However, previous studies show that branches located lower on the tree have a greater variance of modulus of elasticity values in the radial direction and that branches located lower on a tree are more curved. Also, different tree species have different morphologies, some with curvy branches. In this work we have developed a model which considers the curved shape and varying modulus of elasticity values in order to determine stress across the tree branches more accurately. To do this the cross sectional area was divided into rings and each ring was assigned a different modulus of elasticity. Next, the area of the rings was transformed according to their modulus of elasticity. We then considered the curved shape of the branch by generating a best fit line for the diameter of the tree branch in terms of distance from the end of the branch. The generated diameter equation was used in the stress calculations to provide more realistic results. Based on equations developed in this work, we have created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in Matlab, which can be used as a tool to calculate stress within tree branches by biologists without getting involved with the mathematical and mechanical calculations. We also created a Finite Element Model (FEM) in Abaqus and compared results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A003. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38536.

In this study, the design and implementation of a general control system platform for educational purposes was performed. This project has been designed to facilitate the understanding of control systems in mechanical engineering by creating a foundational system to position-control the rotation of a DC motor, and then employing it as a teaching tool in the undergraduate Control Systems course at Loyola Marymount University (LMU). The objective of this effort was to lay the groundwork for a more “hands-on” control systems education at LMU by designing the general mechanical platform and a pilot on-off controller to illustrate its functionality and feasibility in the classroom. With the foundational stages complete, students in future classes will be able to design and build different controllers for this same device in order to investigate and apply their newly-acquired knowledge of control systems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A004. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38676.

Torsional loading is present in a variety of structures and machines. In designing structures that are subjected to this type of loading it is of paramount importance that the effect of loading on the machines be understood. To reinforce the student’s learning in a mechanics of material class a low cost table top apparatus is designed which can be used in a classroom or a laboratory. Many engineering programs attempt to strengthen the students understanding by introducing laboratory experiments. In general equipment used to measure the effect of torsional loading are capital intensive and bulky. As a result, the experiments are run by the instructors or by graduate assistants while students are only observing. This newly designed table-top device by the authors, costs fraction of the equipment that are available on the market. Five devices were made and instrumented to be used by 30 students in ME 207 class at Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE) during the spring 2014. The students indicated that this was a very useful tool to reinforce understanding of mechanics of materials concepts taught in the class. Overall, this experiment strengthened the understanding of theoretical relationships discussed in class as related to the torsional loading of circular shafts and tubes.

Topics: Torsion , Design , Testing
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A005. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38924.

This paper addresses the development of an equipment to teach control engineering fundamentals. The design requirements were determined by users that perform academic, research and industrial training tasks in the area of dynamic systems and process control. Such requirements include: industrial instrumentation; measurement of controlled and manipulated variables, and disturbances; process reconfigurability; different control technologies; several control strategies; appropriate materials for visualization; and compact shape to optimize lab space. The selected process is a tank system that allows one to choose among several dynamic behaviors: first, second, and third order, linear and nonlinear behavior, and dead time; the mathematical model that represents the dynamics of the system is presented. A traditional 3-stage design methodology that includes conceptual, basic and detailed design was followed. The developed equipment allows the user to select from three different technological alternatives to control the system: a PLC, an industrial controller, and a computer. With such flexibility, several control strategies can be implemented: feedback, feedforward, PID, LQG, nonlinear control (gain scheduling, sliding mode, etc.), fuzzy logic, neural networks, dynamic matrix control, etc. The developed system is being used to teach undergrad courses, grad courses, and industrial training. Additionally, the equipment is useful in research projects where grad students and researches can implement and test several advanced control techniques.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A006. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39665.

This paper discusses the modeling and analysis of an example medium speed medium precision lathe spindle. This and few other similar topics have been assigned as term projects in an introductory senior undergraduate/graduate level finite element analysis course taught at Kettering University. The experiences and the general feedback from the students of the class show satisfactory organization of the course material that includes modeling and analysis of real life examples.

With reference to the specific topic on design of machine tool spindles, it is not a new area, however, it is generally taught at the graduate and research levels. Use of modern computational tools to perform iterative design and analysis calculations of such spindles make the senior undergraduate and/or graduate master students aware of the implications of modeling a real life system using the 1D and 3D finite beam elements and to validate those results by a CAE tool. Final course projects such as this serve as a good learning tool to the graduating engineers. Sample results obtained from various CAE tools such as UG-NX 7.5 are presented in the paper and discussed.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A007. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39797.

Structural analyses of mechanisms with components that move relative to each other provide a unique problem to the analyst building and running structural models. In these situations, the analyst usually has to either simplify the problem to a point where the results are unusable or maintain multiple models, which will take more effort to maintain and more resources to run the models. If a mechanism is simplified down to just analyzing one component at a time without regard for the other components in the system, the results will not be accurate because the loading effects of the other components will not be accounted for. In cases where all the components are included in the model the loading effects from the other components will be accounted for, however, a separate model will be required for each position. This paper presents a method of breaking down the complex mechanism into a component level model for each part of the assembly, while still accounting for all loading effects of the other components; in the Pivot Method the component under analysis stays stationary and the loading moves around the component to represent the different positions that it can take.

In order to accomplish this task, a simplified model is used to generate loads at each of the joints. Once the pivot loads are known, a spreadsheet can be used to transform the loads to a coordinate system in which the individual component is being modeled. With the pivot loads known and all the loads transformed into the proper coordinate system the structural analysis of the component under investigation can continue.

The intention of this paper is to introduce the Pivot Method and to demonstrate that it provides a good trade off between both the complexity of methods that model the assembly as a system, and those that focus on the component under question alone. To accomplish this, the analysis results of the Pivot Method models will be compared to results obtained from other methods, with the intention of showing that the Pivot Method will provide the same results while requiring less effort to model and less resources to run.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Curriculum Innovations, Pedagogy and Learning Methodologies

2014;():V005T05A008. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36035.

Integrating real industrial applications and bringing actual engineering problems into the curriculum is always a win-win activity. The educational benefits of such activity are countless. In addition to industry, professional engineering organizations can be a great resource to support actual engineering projects and mentor engineering students. Partnering with industry, professional engineering organization, and any similar entity, allows the students a unique opportunity to gain exposure and practice real engineering before graduation.

The challenge with this concept is to find and run the appropriate project or activity that will simultaneously meet the expectations of all parties and fulfill the educational objectives, while conforming to the time limitations of the course. This paper presents and evaluates such experience through two examples of projects utilizing robotics to achieve engineering educational goals through the design and build of functional industry-grade systems. The first project was performed by an interdisciplinary engineering team of students to solve an actual industrial problem. The project was sponsored by an industrial customer and produced a functional prototype that achieved the required goals and was ready to be duplicated at the customer’s site. The second project was also performed by a team of engineering students to design and build an industrial scale functional robotic manipulator in partnership with a professional engineering organization. The external organization sponsored the project and provided some professional engineers as mentors. The outcome of the project was a mobile 5-axis robotic manipulator that is used for many engineering demo and recruiting events. These projects are examples of ways in which real engineering exercises can be integrated into the curriculum to enhance the educational process and improve collaboration between academia and other engineering entities.

Topics: Robotics
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A009. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36066.

The major emphasis of a Materials Engineering course is to provide a broad level of information on different materials used in industries for various engineering applications. In our institution, working on quarter systems, this course becomes very aggressive and challenging in the amount of information that needs to be presented to the students within a 10weeks-time frame. This course involves different laboratory practices, besides regular class lectures, to obtain knowledge on various material properties to reinforce classroom theories. In addition, to increase exposure to different types of materials and material uses, students in the class are required to research an open topic, which is related to this class. Students have to prepare a brief written report and share what they have learned with the class giving an oral presentation. While a course in Engineering Materials is a common offering in many universities, the authors of this paper present the pedagogical approaches undertaken to successfully implement the course objectives to the undergraduate Engineering and Engineering Technology students. The topics and techniques applied to teach Engineering Materials to enhance student learning outcomes are addressed in this paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A010. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36443.

A methodology and case study detailing the implementation of multi-year product innovation projects is presented. A product called the Waterboy, an inexpensive water purification system designed for under developed countries, was developed by three different groups of students over a span of two years. The initial concept was first developed by a six member entrepreneurial team composed of senior level business and engineering students enrolled in a one semester Product Innovation and Development course. This team was responsible assessing the market need, determining product requirements and developing a limited functionality prototype capable of demonstrating the intended product function. A second team consisting of two Mechanical Engineering students continued the project as their one semester Senior Capstone Design project and was charged with the task of developing a fully functional prototype capable of purifying contaminated water. A third student completed the project as a one semester senior level Design Projects course and was charged with the task of modifying the previous design to minimize cost, facilitate ease manufacture and reduced assembly and distribution costs.

In the Fall of 2010, the entrepreneurial team conducted interviews with health professionals and performed research involving a number of world health and philanthropic organizations. They identified the need for an improved water purification device which could purify enough water for a family of four in a reasonable amount of time and at a cost which would make it accessible to people in underdeveloped countries who are at risk of dying from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. They developed a bicycle driven system which used an ultraviolet germicidal bulb to purify water. The team developed a prototype which demonstrated the basic function of the device which was estimated to cost about $80. The project was continued in the Fall of 2011 by the second team of Mechanical Engineering seniors who refined the purification system and function of the device while simplifying the design, resulting in an estimated cost of $49 per unit. The team built and tested a fully functional prototype which confirmed it was capable of reducing water borne bacteria by a factor of 1000. The project was then completed in the Fall of 2012 by a Senior Mechanical Engineering Student who further reduced the cost of the design and improved its portability in order to reduce distribution costs. A partnership with Goodwill Industries was formed to utilize their recycled materials and inexpensive labor force, which reduced the product cost about $24.

Topics: Innovation
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A011. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36471.

Mohr’s Circle is a graphical representation of the state of plane stress at a point. It is an important concept to learn for the understanding of plane stress transformation. However, it remains a challenge for both engineering as well as engineering technology students to understand the principles of Mohr’s Circle. In this paper, an emphasis is given to identify the source of pedagogical difficulty and a simple rule based method is presented as a new approach for effective teaching as well as learning. It is a viable method to understand the Mohr’s Circle and its application to plane stress transformation.

Topics: Stress
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A012. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37004.

The issue of intellectual property is inevitable for an engineering design course today. Traditionally, it would be discussed separately from the technical or the legal perspective. But they are two sides of the same coin. In the course of comparative analysis of patent dispute, the case method was used to treat the issue involved from both perspectives at the same time. Patent disputes are mainly concerned with the issue of patentability or infringement, and normally both involved. For analysis of a dispute, it is normally required to compare the elements of the invented object with either the prior arts or the alleged infringement, depending on the cases. For such legal analysis one can instead take design methods such as TRIZ (an acronym in Russian standing for “theory of inventive problem solving”) and SCAMPER (an acronym standing for “substitute, combine, adapt, magnify or minify, put to other uses, eliminate or elaborate, and rearrangement or reverse”) to check the design concepts or the inventive principles behind the objects, so that the students can learn the innovation methods and the legal procedure at the same time. In this paper pedagogical experience with concrete examples was demonstrated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A013. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38192.

An implementation plan for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) by the implementing agency UNESCO, launched in 2005 to build partnerships with various partners mainly aimed to reflect the great diversity of interests, concerns, and challenges for ESD. Embedded in this UN program is the challenge to academic engineering programs to develop a technical workforce which is capable of designing and continually developing sustainable processes and products. ESD therefore requires engineers to be able to learn and perform in an interdisciplinary work environment as critical thinkers and problem solvers, to be value-driven and to practice participatory and transparent decision making. Taking these challenges back into curriculum development, the authors of this paper propose that their Lean Engineering Education (LEE) initiative be examined and scrutinized as a contribution to ESD. Thus, this paper reviews ESD roots and partnerships and, then, present, succinctly, LEE as a curricular innovation for engineering courses that promotes the behavior intended for future engineers, to foster a ESD and the Sustainable Development thinking.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A014. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-40249.

Engineering Summer Bridge (ESB) program at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) is designed to prepare the engineering freshmen intellectually for an early introduction to the engineering culture and mathematics and science expectation. The program curriculum and content were specifically designed to prepare underrepresented Hispanic students for their success in the coming science and engineering study at UT-Brownsville. More than 92% of the targeted students are underrepresented Hispanic, and English is the second language for 86% of them. Most of these targeted students are academically below the top 10% in their high school graduating classes due to the pre-selection of TOP10 Texas House Bill. The ESB program at UTB cultivates a diverse community of engineering and pre-engineering students and intensively enhances their mathematics preparation in Pre-Calculus and College Algebra. Statistics data from 2012 and 2013 ESB program indicates that more than 81% of the participants in both years did not take Pre-Calculus in high school. Another finding is that 71% of the ESB participants with at least an attendance rate of 50% earned a grade higher than a “B” in their Calculus I class later on, while only 43% from the group with an attendance rate lower than 50% earned a grade higher than a “B” in the Calculus I class. Students seem more successful in their Calculus I study if they attend the classes more frequently. It is also found the early contact with engineering faculty through Summer Bridge Programs, together with an early and longer engineering orientation seminar during the program, are successful ways to assist in the retention of engineering freshman [1–2].

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Distance/Online Engineering Education, Models and Enabling Technologies

2014;():V005T05A015. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37064.

Since its introduction in 2010, Microsoft’s Kinect input device for game consoles and computers has shown its great potential in a large number of applications, including game development, research and education. Many of these implementations are still in the prototype stages and exhibit a somewhat limited performance. These limitations are mainly caused by the quality of the point clouds generated by the Kinect, which include limited range, high dependency on surface properties, shadowing, low depth accuracy, etc. One of the Kinect’s most significant limitations is the low accuracy and high error associated with its point cloud. The severity of these defects varies with the points’ locations in the Kinect’s camera coordinate system. The available traditional algorithms for processing point clouds are based on the same assumption that input point clouds are perfect and have the same characteristics throughout the entire point cloud.

In the first part of this paper, the Kinect’s point cloud properties (including resolution, depth accuracy, noise level and error) and their dependency on the point pixel location will be systematically studied. Second, the Kinect’s calibration, both by hardware and software approaches, will be explored and methods for improving the quality of its output point clouds will be identified. Then, modified algorithms adapted to the Kinect’s unique properties will be introduced. This method allows to better judge the output point cloud properties in a quantifiable manner and then to modify traditional computer vision algorithms by adjusting their assumptions regarding the input cloud properties to the actual parameters of the Kinect. Finally, the modified algorithms will be tested in a prototype application, which shows that the Kinect does have the potential for successful usage in educational applications if the according algorithms are design properly.

Topics: Algorithms
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A016. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37149.

A virtual space (VS) is an indispensable component of a virtual environment (VE) in virtual reality (VR). Usually, it is created using general tools and skills that are independent of the users’ specific applications and intents. Creating a VS by surveying the real world with traditional measuring tools or creating virtual features with CAD software involves many steps and thus is time consuming and complicated. This renders the construction of VEs difficult, impairs their flexibility and hampers their widespread usage.

In this paper, an efficient method for creating VSs with a handheld camera is introduced. In this approach, the camera is used as a measuring tool that scans the real scene and obtains the corresponding surface information. This information is then used to generate a virtual 3D model through a series of data processing procedures. Firstly, the camera’s pose is traced in order to locate the points of the scene’s surface, whereby these surface points form a point cloud. Then, this point cloud is meshed and the mesh elements are textured automatically one by one. Unfortunately, the virtual 3D model resulting from this procedure represents an impenetrable solid and thus collision detection would prevent the avatars from entering into this VS. Therefore, an approach for eliminating this restriction is proposed here. Finally, a game-based virtual laboratory (GBVL) for an undergraduate mechanical engineering class was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The model format used in Garry’s Mod (GMod) is also found in other VEs, and therefore the method proposed here can be straightforwardly generalized to other VE implementations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A017. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37915.

A well formed senior design project is known to have significant benefits in terms of project outcome, student motivation, team cohesiveness, engagement, and student learning. Defining a good problem statement, forming a team of compatible and appropriately skilled students, and selecting an appropriate faculty mentor are critical aspects of project formation. Therefore, students in Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University are encouraged to suggest project ideas, form teams, and have them approved by the course coordinator before the semester starts. While there is significant literature on senior design projects, most of the existing work is focused on activities after the problem is defined and the teams are formed. There is a lack of mechanisms and tools to guide the project formation phase in senior design projects, which makes it challenging for students and faculty to collaboratively develop and refine project ideas and to establish appropriate teams. To address this challenge, we have implemented an online collaboration tool to share, discuss and obtain feedback on project ideas, and to facilitate collaboration among students and faculty prior to the start of the semester. Through an online survey and questionnaire to students, we are exploring the impact of the collaboration tool on the senior design project formation process. In this paper we present the design of the tool and the results from our ongoing study in the senior design class at Purdue Mechanical Engineering.

Topics: Design , Collaboration
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A018. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38451.

In recent years, online learning modules and interactive tools have been developed for integrating synergistic computational and experimental activities into several courses in the mechanical and manufacturing engineering curriculum. These modules may complement existing labs, introduce experiments to lecture-based courses, or help reinforce the understanding of concepts within a course through case studies, computational modeling and its validation through experimental data analysis. Within a given undergraduate course in engineering, the traditional approach is to cover the fundamental concepts and their applications in problem solving and design. However, often some advanced concepts pertinent to the course material cannot be included in great details due to the restrictions on total number of credit/teaching hours. The exposure to such advanced material is considered very important for establishing a broader appreciation of the relevance of the course material and potentially instilling an interest in successive classes and, most importantly, research projects.

The project described in this paper has focused in the development of learning modules which can be used in various courses to introduce advanced topics, analyses and applications related to the fundamental course content. In this paper the development, implementation and assessment of two modules which feature enhanced content is presented. One module has been designed to be used as a tutorial on rotor dynamics and has been embedded in an introductory course on mechanical vibrations. The second is a module being developed for introducing the static and dynamic characterization of viscoelastic polymers. This module will be associated with an advanced mechanics of materials course, as well as the course on vibrations. These two separate concepts/topics are not formally a part of the undergraduate level courses but the underlying concepts can be easily related to the associated course learning outcomes. Such modules can, furthermore, be modified and used with various other courses as assignments and/or as a pre-requisite to a given case study. These modules can also be used for training and support of undergraduate researchers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A019. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38606.

Mechanical assembly activities involve multiple factors including humans, mechanical parts, tools and assembly environments. In order to simulate assembly processes by computers for educational purposes, all these factors should be considered. Virtual reality (VR) technology, which aims to integrate natural human motion into real-world scenarios, provides an ideal simulation medium. Novel VR devices such as 3D glasses, motion-tracking gloves, haptic sensors, etc. are able to fulfill fundamental assembly simulation needs. However, most of these implementations focus on assembly simulations for computer-aided design, which are geared toward professionals rather than students, thus leading to complicated assembly procedures not suitable for students. Furthermore, the costs of these novel VR devices and specifically designed VR platforms represent an untenable financial burden for most educational institutions.

In this paper, a virtual platform for mechanical assembly education based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor and Garry’s Mod (GMod) is presented. With the help of the Kinect’s body tracking function and voice recognition technology in conjunction with the graphics and physics simulation capabilities of GMod, a low-cost VR platform that enables educators to author their own assembly simulations was implemented. This platform utilizes the Kinect as the sole input device. Students can use voice commands to navigate their avatars inside of a GMod powered virtual laboratory as well as use their body’s motions to integrate pre-defined mechanical parts into assemblies. Under this platform, assembly procedures involving the picking, placing and attaching of parts can be performed collaboratively by multiple users. In addition, the platform allows collaborative learning without the need for the learners to be co-located. A pilot study for this platform showed that, with the instructor’s assistance, mechanical engineering undergraduate students are able to complete basic assembly operations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A020. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38771.

This paper presents the project PAIR – Remote Industrial Automation Trainer. Its goal is to provide an environment where learners can improve their skills in Industrial Automation and practice their theoretical knowledge. In order to achieve this, PAIR will allow the users to explore automation concepts in some real scenes, as the control of an intelligent house or an industrial process. PAIR will also allow simulated virtual experiences associated to the real world scenarios.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Education Research Innovation and Sustainable Trends in Engineering

2014;():V005T05A021. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38362.

Energy is a continuous driving force for the social and technological prospective developments and a vital and essential ingredient for all human transactions. The world is facing an energy “crisis”, due to limited fossil fuel resources, growing energy demand and population. All these facts led to and increased interests in renewable energy sources and green manufacturing. Equipping engineering students with the skills and knowledge required to be successful global engineers in the 21st century is one of the primary objectives of academic educators. Enabling students to practice self-directed learning, find design solutions that are sustainable, and helping them recognize that they are part of a global community are just of few of our educational goals. Project-based learning provides the contextual environment making learning exciting and relevant, providing opportunities to explore technical problems from systems-level perspectives, with an appreciation for the inter-connectedness of science principles. The quest for knowledge is the driving force behind education no matter what field is being studied. This means a lot of reading from textbooks, completion of assignments, exams, lectures but quite little of this work involves original research. Active research experience is one of the most effective ways to attract and retain talented undergraduates in science and engineering. At our institutions, we are regularly modifying curriculum content to embrace sustainability and green energy concepts in learning outcomes. However this crosses over between a numbers of multi-disciplinary, multidimensional study areas that include philosophy and ethics. Consequently a major challenge for us is to encourage engineering students whose primary focus is purely technical to include sustainability and renewable energy topics in their designs. To join into this effort of equipping the future engineers and technologists with renewable energy background, we developed a set of project-based courses related to these topics and include them also in our senior project design course sequence. The main objectives of these curricula changes are to provide students with theoretical and practical knowledge reinforced by hands-on experience. These projects are also good examples of multi-disciplinary cooperation of different engineering disciplines as well as providing valuable hands-on and research experience. This paper presents the changes in the course structure, sample of projects, student survey of the course, as well as plans and expectations for future success. We are also discussing here the project team structure, plan and management, component selection, system simulation, and experimental result.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A022. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38501.

Major challenges such as energy, food, water, environment, health and so many more have never been more prominent than they are today. Engineers and educators, as problem solvers should be addressing these issues and challenges in sustainable ways. They have an enormous opportunity to help create a more sustainable world. Technology problems interconnecting sustainability challenges such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, environmental pollution, economic and social instability are becoming increasingly major concerns for mankind. However, the engineers and scientists have failed on large extend to fully address the sustainability issues. It was also found that engineering graduates do not possess necessary skills to tackle sustainability related problems. Engineering practice and education are changing as social expectations and conditions for engineering practice change too. Students have the responsibility and opportunity to continue improving our life while reducing or even reversing the negative impacts that our industrial society is having on the environment. Current engineering curricula are not equipping them to properly deal with these challenges due to little integration of sustainable and green design strategies and practice. Transforming higher education curricula for sustainable development is a tough challenge, dealing with the complexness of sustainability concepts and integration into engineering education. Teaching students the sustainability principles and equipping them with necessary tools help them to make better choices on materials and energy use, or design. These concepts and methods are still relatively new to engineering curriculum and are not an established practice for most of such programs. Meanwhile, today’s students have a strong desire to improve the world through their work, and sustainability connects with these interest and motivations. However, students’ hunger for knowledge often outstrips what is available in their courses and the experiences of their professors. Furthermore, to make sustainable design compelling to a wider base of engineering students, we need to craft sustainable design in terms of mainstream design problems that are important, cutting-edge, and achievable. Then we need to help them how to effectively deal with environmental and societal needs and constraints as part of their core design process. The paper highlights the process required for embedding sustainability and green design into our programs, curriculum design, implementation and impediments to surmount for sustainability and green design in engineering education. This was done through a project-based approach, developing three new courses and appropriate changes in a number of existing courses. The skill requirements were studied and finally the list of subjects, topics, teaching and learning methods are identified and discussed in this paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A023. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39698.

This article focuses on the development and field testing of instructional design concepts and educational software to teach diagnostic skills necessary to identify and solve problems in complex technical systems. Using concept mapping software along with expert-system programs, the overall software package enables technical workers and students in technology and engineering fields to benefit from personalized, iterative interactions that permit them to design visual maps of a diagnostic strategy and to allow direct and automatic comparison of their visual map to an expert’s map.

The computer-based modules are developed in the Lectora authoring system and incorporate the VUE concept mapping software. The self-paced, interactive modules include an introduction stage, a visual mapping tutorial stage and a technical system and problem stage. Two technical systems will provide the context for a technical problem, the systems are: 1.) electrical power grid, and 2.) heat exchanger used in a waste plastic pelletizer machine. The educational software can be tailored to include other technical systems and technical problems.

This article demonstrates implementation of Similarity Flooding Algorithm (SFA) to solve engineering problems. SFA is used to match nodes and links between learner’s and expert’s concept maps. To compare two process maps, SFA needs to consider both the relations (links) between nodes and the content of the nodes.

In this article, we describe four improvements to the original SFA code to improve the comparison between two different concept (or process) maps: 1) Similarity of two strings is calculated by comparing the two strings character by character, which means that two strings get lower similarity if they are not the same exactly. During the comparison, WordNet® thesaurus is used to accurately evaluate the content of nodes; 2) Base similarity includes absolute similarity for each paired nodes, according to their links and content, but the overall similarity of the maps is calculated based on the relative similarity of each pair; 3) In a process map, the importance of each node could be different and important nodes have more weighting in overall similarity; 4) We consider two threshold values in the comparison algorithm. One is similarity threshold for the similarity based on the connections (links) of the nodes; the other is synonym threshold for the semantic similarity of content. If the similarity is lower than the thresholds, it could be considered as discarded. At the end, we analyze the collected data and show the effectiveness of the proposed technique to solve educational and training problems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A024. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39922.

Health education organizations use fairs and events to engage and educate the public about health and nutrition choices. Many organizations have interactive exhibits to attract and hold the attention of attendees. One successful example is a bicycle powered blender. Attendees take turns pedaling to produce fruit and vegetable smoothies that are given out as samples. Whole grain foods are also being promoted as healthy choices. This work describes the design, implementation, and testing of two prototype human powered flour mills for use at health education and community events. Because the mills will be used at public events, it must be safe and usable for a broad range of participant ages, sizes, and physical abilities. The mills should also be easy to transport, setup, and clean by volunteers unfamiliar with the mills. To facilitate teaching conversations, each prototype includes user power input feedback. One mill is based on a reclined bicycle format, constructed with a custom steel frame and standard bicycle components. Power feedback is accomplished with a ball proportionally levitated in a column of air. The second mill is based on a modified commercial rowing machine, and adapts the original power feedback system. The prototypes were mechanically tested, and evaluated by focus groups. Three commercial flour mills were evaluated on milling efficiency and suitability to this project. Recommendations are made for future versions.

Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Engineering Accreditation, Data Collection, Assessment and ABET

2014;():V005T05A025. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36280.

The addition of Energy to the Mechanical Engineering curriculum created a new mechanical engineering model of engineering education in the baccalaureate-level and an opportunity for providing the academic foundation for successful career preparation and lifelong learning for the students. The curriculum has been designed with a system-level approach to traditional mechanical engineering based design, on the fundamentals of undergraduate level engineering within the mechanical engineering discipline, and has provided experiential-oriented approaches for the better understanding of classical mechanical engineering principles. The interdisciplinary nature of energy systems and mechanics requires a cross-cutting education that draws from the synergy of traditional disciplines of mechanical engineering, materials engineering and manufacturing, and computational methods and engineering. We are going to present the outcome based assessment in undergraduate level and discuss components of the program from freshman to senior years, and our successful implementation in developing student learning outcomes assessment, and evaluation approach for ABET accreditation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A026. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36749.

The assessment of Student Outcomes is an import component for program evaluation and improvement. Though not proposed as the only tool a program should employ to measure the achievement of outcomes, the capstone design course can be a valuable mechanism to measure performance with regards to Student Outcomes. Because of the expansive reach of the engineering design process, capstone design projects present a natural environment to structure assessment activities that directly map to Student Outcomes. This paper presents versions of the Mechanical Engineering capstone design course that have been specifically structured to assess achievement of Student Outcomes commonly included in engineering accreditation criteria. Typically the outcomes are assessed by assignments that guide the engineering design process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A027. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38242.

Office hours are available for students to receive extra help outside of class. Unfortunately, this resource is often underutilized by students despite efforts to schedule convenient and accessible office hour times. Previous survey results from students attending a variety of courses in Mechanical Engineering at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) have shown a positive correlation between low office hour attendance and the following factors: (i) high understanding of course material, (ii) procrastination and lack of time to seek help before deadlines, and (iii) low time studying materials outside of class. Interestingly, the results of this survey did not support the hypothesis that students who attended more office hours performed better.

A new homework grading policy was instituted in Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics I in the fall and spring semesters of the 2013 academic year at RIT. Under this policy, students were required to visit office hours to receive credit for completion of assigned weekly problems. Implementation of this policy has provided quantitative information regarding participation and timing of office hour visits. This investigation will examine the effects of attendance and timing of office hour participation on metrics of performance including final class grades and theoretical understanding as measured by performance on multiple choice test questions.

Results presented here suggest that the office hour grading system resulted in high participation rates across a broad range of students. Higher office hour participation rates had a positive impact on student performance in long answer exam problems and low impact on performance in multiple choice questions. While performance was a stronger function office participation at the of end of term than in week five, early semester participation rates can be used as a tool to help identify students at risk of dropping a class or receiving a poor grade.

Topics: Students
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A028. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38698.

It is long understood that many students do not take advantage of faculty assistance outside of class. In an attempt to improve the use of office hours, faculty have made efforts to schedule times that are most convenient to students and are most likely to have high attendance; before homework assignments are due or examinations are being held. Despite these efforts, students rarely take advantage of this support service. As a first attempt to improve student engagement, the number of office hours held by teaching assistants (TAs) was increased, expecting that students would feel more comfortable asking for help from TAs rather than faculty. However, office hour attendance was no better for TAs than for faculty. Yet, exam performance continued to indicate that many students could benefit from help outside the classroom. In an effort to better understand this trend, a survey was conducted to examine reasons why students choose not to attend office hours. In particular, we were looking for the effect of social norms, student’s perception of their understanding of the material and their need for extra help, as well as the use of other resources such as on-line solutions to homework problems and cooperative learning with other students. This survey was conducted in six classes (300 students) comprising our engineering science core curriculum, including: Statics, Mechanics of Materials, Dynamics, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. Results indicated that of all the factors tested, the only ones that positively correlated to low office hour attendance were (1) students felt they understood the material well enough and did not need extra help, (2) students procrastinated and therefore did not have time to seek help before homework was due, and (3) students who spent less overall time studying outside of class attended fewer office hours. The data did not support our initial premise that students who attended more office hours performed better. Further study is warranted to explore behaviors that enhance student performance. It is expected that results from these studies will provide information to improve students’ efficient use of time outside the classroom.

Topics: Students
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A029. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39118.

An active class room teaching practice can become highly rewarding for students. An instructor practicing active learning approaches may get significantly higher success in inculcating course materials deeply as compared to a lecture based teaching. However, transitioning from prevailing lecture based instruction to an active learning approach can be hampered by the reservations and prejudices of an engineering educator; a tenure track faculty may find it even more challenging to leave the traditional lecture based teaching approach and adopt an active teaching approach. This paper will describe the active teaching techniques that I, a tenure track faculty, has been practicing to teach mechanical engineering courses; the main discussion will focus on the Fuel Cell Science and Technology course. I have devised my current deep learning and teaching strategies through a yearlong Myrtilla Miner Faculty Fellowship cohort under Dr. Ken Bain and a number of workshops on the group based active teaching and peer interaction based teaching. This paper describes the strategies for developing a teaching and assessment plan for the courses I teach by emphasizing on (i) designing significant learning outcomes before starting a class, (ii) the long term retention of key concepts of a course by fostering student centered deep learning course activities, and (iii) far transfer of the skills students gain from a course. The first topic of this paper is about various strategies to understand students’ motivations and inhibitions that may govern their learning curve in a course. The second topic of this paper discusses the crucial aspect of designing a promising syllabus to give students a bigger purpose for learning the course material; a promising syllabus attempt to connect students’ long held curiosities and career ambitions with the course to be offered. The third topic delves into the strategies to engage students in self-preparation to assimilate the key concepts to be discussed in a class. This paper will also highlight the approach to design conceptual quizzes to guide student preparation before they come to the class and then use the same conceptual quizzes to conduct peer discussion and define the flow of a class; this strategy is derived from Dr. Eric Mazur’s work on peer interaction based teaching. The fourth topic is about the utility of one pager feedback form to be filled by the students after every class. This paper will discuss structure and effectiveness of the feedback form in improving student attention and participation in the class discussions. I have offered two workshops on effective teaching at the University of the District of Columbia to promote active student learning in a wide range of courses. I plan to conduct workshops for the middle and high school teachers to share the effective teaching skills.

Topics: Teaching , Students
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Experiments and Energy Systems

2014;():V005T05A030. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36552.

CFD is following the trend of CAD and FEA to undergraduate education especially with recent advances in commercial codes. It will soon take its place as an expected skill for new engineering graduates. CFD was added as a component to an experiment in a junior level fluid mechanics course. The objectives were to introduce CFD, as an analysis tool, to the students and to support the theoretical concepts of the course. The students were asked to complete an experimental two-dimensional study for a wing in a wind tunnel, to use CFD to simulate the flow, and to predict the aerodynamic lift using CFD as well as the experimentally obtained pressure distribution. In addition, they had to compare their results to published data for the studied wing.

Details of the course, the wind tunnel test and the CFD simulations are presented. Samples from the students’ work are used in the discussion. The lab activities were successfully completed by the students and the learning objectives were well addressed. One of the valuable outcomes from this lab was the opportunity for the students to integrate multiple fluid mechanics analysis tools and learn about the limits for each tool. CFD also enhanced the learning in the lab activities and increased students’ interest in the subject.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A031. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37125.

In external and internal fluid flow analysis using numerical methods, most attention is paid to the properties of the flow assuming absolute rigidity of the solid bodies involved. However, this is often not the case for water flow or other fluids with high density. The pressure forces cause the geometry to deform which in turn changes the flow properties around it. Thus, a one-way and two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) coupling is proposed and compared to a CFD analysis of a windsurfing fin in order to quantify the differences in performance data as well as the properties of the flow. This leads to information about the necessity of the use of FSI in comparison to regular CFD analysis and gives indication of the value of the enhanced results of the deformable analysis applied to water flow around an elastically deformable hydrofoil under different angles of attack. The performance data and flow property evaluation is done in ANSYS Fluent using the k-ω SST and k-ε model with a y+ of 1 and 35 respectively in order to be able to compare the behavior of both turbulence models. It is found that the overall lift coefficient in general is lower and that the flow is less turbulent because of softer transition due to the deformed geometry reducing drag forces. It is also found that the deformation of the tip of the hydrofoil leads to vertical lift forces. For the FSI analysis, one-way and two-way coupling were incorporated leading to the ability to compare results. It has been found that one-way coupling is sufficient as long as there is no stall present at any time.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A032. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37298.

The article deals with the use of a small aviation turboshaft engine for laboratory purposes. This study describes its transformation into an experimental device for research and education. Various constructional, technological and controlling modifications and settings of the gas turbine test stand were carried out and tested on a stationary configuration. The stationary system can be used as a small backup power generator or as a drive unit for a compressor, pump, etc. New control systems, electronic elements and methods of measuring rotations, pressure and temperature are tested for educational and research purposes. The study includes a schematic description of modelling measurements and subsequent numerical evaluation of the thermodynamic characteristics of the cycle in an experimental gas turbine. The laboratory device presented here is, thanks to technological, material and thermodynamic research, suitable for educating and testing the knowledge of future aviation and mechanical engineers.

The content of the article is a description of the use of transformed small turboshaft engine into small jet engine by means of experimental testing of unstable work of the radial compressor under laboratory conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A033. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38329.

Convective heat transfer beyond explicit solutions to the Navier Stokes equations is often an empirical science. Schlieren imaging is one of the only fluid imaging systems that can directly visualize the density gradients of a fluid using collimated light and refractive properties. The ability to visualize fluid densities is useful in both research and educational fields. A Schlieren imaging device has been constructed by undergraduate students at the University of Portland. The device is used for professorial heat transfer and fluid dynamics research and to help undergraduates visualize and understand natural convection. This paper documents the design decisions, design process, and the final specifications of the Schlieren system. A simple 2-D heated cylindrical model is considered and evaluated using Schlieren imaging, OpenFOAM C.F.D. simulation, and convection analysis using a Nusselt correlation. Results are presented for the three analysis techniques and show excellent verifications between the CFD simulation, Nusselt correlation, and Schlieren imaging system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A034. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39166.

The A. Leon Linton Department of Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Technological University offered a new senior capstone project to a small group of students, funded by a teaching grant from the National Fluid Power Association. All mechanical engineering students at Lawrence Tech must complete a capstone project: either an SAE competition team or a project addressing a particular industry need. The team that worked on the current project consisted of students with various concentrations in mechanical engineering and included an international visiting student from Brazil. Three faculty in Mechanical Engineering, each with different areas of expertise: thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics and mechatronics, mentored and worked closely with the students at every step of this project. The objective of this project was to design and fabricate a classroom-scale gantry crane for material handling. The undergraduate students were not only involved in the design of a fluid powered system, but also worked on the modeling of mechanical components and the mechanical system as well as circuit design for an operator interface. The self-guided and real-world design aspect of the project increases the effectiveness of teaching by the faculty and retention of the subject by the students involved in the project.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Globalization of Engineering

2014;():V005T05A035. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36635.

This is a companion paper to IMECE 2013 - 63278. The paper describes a course in which practical designing of industrial products and processes is supported by the analysis of operations management cases taken from actual manufacturing companies. Through the case method, students assume the role of decision-makers who have to use their engineering and business knowledge to deal with real-life problems. Such an approach helps to support and complement the students’ senior design experience and cover those subjects left out from their sponsored design projects. The cases emphasize operations management concepts; economic analysis of manufacturing processes; process analysis, design, and improvement; integration of experimental analysis and research methodologies in diverse manufacturing industries; as well as the interaction between manufacturing technologies and the competitive strategy of the firm. This way, students not only practice solving manufacturing problems, but also develop a framework for dealing with practical situations they are likely to face in their career development. We provide teaching recommendations and practical examples of the case method in this context.

Topics: Design , Education
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A036. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36755.

This paper discusses on how globalization affects industry, business and engineering practice, and what kind of education is considered and attempted at selected high schools and colleges to raise global leaders from the United States, India and Japan. Case studies for selected schools in the United States, India and Japan are also presented. In particular, details on the participation of undergraduate students in an integrated, global research culminating in global leadership and outlook with specific examples from the ongoing collaboration of the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater and Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India are presented to corroborate the beneficial effects of globalization. With the goal of effectively raising global leaders in science and engineering fields, the authors propose a scheme for the trilateral collaboration between the U. S., India and Japan, with a focus on difference in education, characters of the peoples, and preferred models of global leaders among these nations.

Topics: Collaboration
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A037. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39952.

In India, government aided and private engineering institutes provide engineering education. Government aided institutes include Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs) and government engineering colleges. Ten percent of the total students get education in government-aided institutes and are globally accepted too. Remaining ninety percent of the total students get education in private self-financed engineering institutes. To meet the increasing demand of engineers from various industrial sectors, a quantitative growth of private engineering institutes took place with an average annual intake capacity of four hundred to five hundred students. With increasing annual intake capacity, the trend of vacant seats in private engineering institutes is also increasing rapidly year wise. Indian industry demands many engineers, but only a few students passed out from private institutes are employable. There is a challenge to build the gap between what industries are looking for the engineers and the education provided in the institutes. In this article, the authors have tried to frame the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis and recommend some remedial actions needed for private engineering institutes in India.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Pre-College (K-12) STEM - University, School and Industry Alliance

2014;():V005T05A038. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37374.

Japanese traditional industry has evolved depending on demand, so that it has been contributed to Japanese manufacturing for a long time. Therefore, it is considered that learning and understanding the basis of that skill connects to learning the culture of one’s own country and supporting future manufacturing. Consequently, we propose the development of human resources who can contribute not only to Japanese manufacturing, but also to world manufacturing through Future-Applied Conventional Technology. That is consistent subject — not just a unit — from elementary to high school. Its aim is to deepen a person’s familiarity with and understanding of the culture and manufacturing in his or her own country. In Japan, an individual accomplishes this by learning Japanese traditional manufacturing — practical and indwelling knowledge of the predecessor in traditional industry — and developing the ability to absorb the acquired knowledge and skill through inventive ideas based on the “visiting old, learning new” concept.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A039. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-40039.

Often when people who are not in the field hear about electronic packaging, they immediately presume that it is exclusive to electrical engineering; however, electronic packaging has opportunities for many different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas. Many projects in micro- and nanotechnology are interdisciplinary in nature, and thus, a broad background of various disciplines is needed to conduct research and development in these areas. At the Georgia Institute of Technology, an initiative called the Meindl Legacy project has been created to use crowd funding to help graduate students in the nanotechnology area to create “teachable moments.” The intention of the teachable moment is to broaden the research to younger audiences, so that they are inspired to take the necessary background classes needed to pursue a STEM career path. The use of crowd-funding allows for industry partners and the general public to become involved with research that is currently ongoing at the Georgia Institute of Technology and to educate K-12 students. The “teachable moment” outlined in this paper was created to demonstrate how different materials’ coefficients of thermal expansion can affect the interfaces and potentially lead to cracking damage in an electronic package.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Problem Solving in Engineering Education, Research and Practice

2014;():V005T05A040. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37376.

Educating engineering students in the appropriate methods for analyzing and problem solving fundamental manufacturing processes is a challenge in undergraduate engineering education, given the increasingly limited room in the curriculum as well as the limited time and resources. Although junior and senior level laboratory courses have traditionally been used as a pedagogical platform for conveying this type of knowledge to undergraduate students, the broad range of manufacturing topics that can be covered along with the limited time within a laboratory course structure has sometimes limited the effectiveness of this approach. At the same time, some undergraduate students require a much deeper knowledge of certain manufacturing topics, practices or research techniques, especially those who may already be working in a manufacturing environment as part of a summer internship or part-time employment. The current work shows how modeling, actual machining tests and problem solving techniques were recently used to analyze a manufacturing process within a senior design project course. Specifically, an Instantaneous Rigid Force Model, originally put forward by Tlusty (1,2) was validated and used to assess cutting forces and the ability to detect tool defects during milling operations. Results from the tests showed that the model accurately predicts cutting forces during milling, but have some variation due to cutter vibration and deflection, which were not considered in the model. It was also confirmed that a defect as small as 0.050 inches by 0.025 inches was consistently detectable at multiple test conditions for a 0.5-inch diameter, 4-flute helical end mill. Based on the results, it is suggested that a force cutting model that includes the effect of cutter vibration be used in future work. The results presented demonstrate a level of knowledge in milling operations analysis beyond what can typically be taught in most undergraduate engineering laboratory courses.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A041. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38516.

The present work aims to demonstrate the use of information contained in patent systems for teaching and academic research in mechanical engineering and related fields. The approach proposed herein is focused on academic research and the engineering disciplines to provide a more complete training of students and researchers. In the proposed approach, the Patent System is used in three different ways: As a source of technical information; as a source of inspiration for designing solutions; and for patent protection of academic research and their eventual commercialization. The patent system also enables teachers to keep up with technological trends and check their possible impacts on the training of engineers. The methodology was applied in practice, with results exceeding expectations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A042. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39296.

Senior level capstone design courses are run in many different ways in the academic community. A growing number of institutions strive to promote immersion into the real world of engineering through industrially sponsored projects. While this approach offers many immediate benefits to near-graduating seniors, it introduces many unique problems to the academic community. Developing and sustaining an industrially-sponsored capstone design program requires an understanding of the synergies and differences between academia and industry. Key issues discussed in this paper are program management, company sponsorship, diversity of projects, level of oversight required to make a successful project and legal implications of sponsoring a meaningful project.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A043. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-39692.

The nature of engineering is problem solving. The challenge of ongoing design research is to develop a tool that would support the most difficult phase of design — solving problems with contradictions and finding the best possible idea for conceptual design of products. The Brief Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (BTIPS) is a prospective tool for performing such a task. Derived from TRIZ, TSIP and TIPS, BTIPS slightly differs from those methods. Principles, Effects and Prediction modules in BTIPS are enhanced to meet the newest challenges of engineering pedagogy and technology development. To meet those challenges principles of Size Reduction, Miniaturization, Nanotechnology and Biotechnology were added. Design principles and technological effects were enriched with new developments based on nanotechnology and biotechnology. Furthermore the procedure of the Virtual Element approach was added to the Prediction module. The tests of functions’ separation and minimum information contents to evaluate the derived end solution are also the new additions. BTIPS is living and developing; it is taught and used, and, thus, constantly improved. This paper points out the enhancements and shows some ways of BTIPS application in solving problems with conflicting constraints in conceptual design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Education and Globalization: Teaching Laboratories, Machine Shop Experience, and Technology-Aided Lecturing

2014;():V005T05A044. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36196.

Analysis of depth and the roughness from the chuck jaws indentation investigated by the Olympus LEXT-OLS4000 Laser microscope. Strain gauges were used for measuring the gripping force of the jaws. The three-characteristic movements of an expert who ensured that the work-piece was kept steady and balance did not measurably affect the surface indentation of the work-pieces. The characteristic movement of the non-expert often straddled the left body to the left side while he was twisting the chuck-key has appeared the surface indentations. The depth inspection of them found the inside of surface indentation deeper than outside. Moreover, the results of a strain gauge measurement of all movements both an expert and the non-expert indicated the inside of the jaw had higher the strain than outside. Nevertheless, the results showed the most strain on work-piece surface occurred with the body movement of the non-expert.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A045. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-36631.

The carburizing process requires metallurgical inspection by means of ground metallurgical mounts. Grinding process for a metallurgical mount is an important process. In this study, we investigate the difference in the outcome of the sound during the grinding process between an expert and a non-expert execution. We aim to identify the evaluation criteria in grinding technique based on the sound information, in order to establish more efficient training method for acquiring the grinding techniques for non-expert inspectors. As a result, we found the factor in the sound that are essential for the efficient grinding.

Topics: Grinding
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A046. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37732.

We deal with “Danshi” that has a special wrinkle called “Shibo” on the surface structure of the Japanese paper. Three sheets of wet papers are superimposed to make the Shibo. Wet papers are extended the slack by brushing. Superimposed wet papers are made the Shibo by especial pulling movement. This time, we investigate about the movement of brushing for extending the slack.

Subjects are two people which are wearing 18 reflecting markers on the body. An expert has manufactured Danshi for 23 years of experience and a non-expert has done less than 1 year of experience. The movement of brushing process is measured as sampling time of 100 [Hz]. We will investigate differences of the physical movement between the expert and the non-expert.

We make a hearing about the differences and work on visualization about the skill of the expert.

The method of making Shibo structure has five procedures. First, one piece of wet paper is placed on the inclined work table. Second, wrinkles of the paper are extended by brushing. Third, next wet paper is put on the first sheet, it is extended the slack again. Fourth, moreover third wet paper is put on the second sheet, it is extended the slack by brushing again. Fifth, the Shibo structures are produced by pulling in a state of three superimposed sheets.

We compared the number of brushing in each sheets. There was not difference in the number of brushing in each sheet in a non-expert. In other hand, number of brushing by the expert was two times that of first and second sheets in third sheet. The number of brushing in first and second sheets did not change by the expert. In consequence, he was a notion that important things for making the clear Shibo structure are not only extending the slack, but also pulling out the bubbles.

We divided brushing movement into eight directions. In third sheet of the expert, the number of brushing to body direction has increased over 10%. It was found that the expert removed air bubbles from the corner of the top right. Furthermore, we investigated the change of angle of the right wrist in the expert and the non-expert. It became clear that angle of the wrist is reduced when the expert is brushing forward.

Topics: Visualization
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A047. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37771.

In Japan, the production of traditional handmade Japanese paper using the spring water has been performed in the Shuso area of Shikoku Island. However, the method of production was been handed down by trial and error and observation of the expert movement until now. The produced papers are counted one unit that is five hundred sheets of Japanese paper. Five hundred sheets of Japanese paper are called 1 [lot]. The paper has two type of thickness and its size is 600mm × 1500mm. Thick paper is 9[kgf] per lot. The other hand, thin paper is 8[kgf] per lot. In other words, the expert is making paper which is the difference of 2[gf] per sheet. This time, we have been able to obtain cooperation with traditional craftsman for the digitizing of his skills. Therefore, we visualize the tacit knowledge of the expert’s skill.

The expert subject has 34 years of experience of traditional hand-made Japanese paper. We have digitized his manufacturing movement by using motion capture. His movements are analyzed by attaching infrared reflective markers of 20 on each parts of the body.

In this study, we found that constant rhythm of the neck in handmade Japanese paper manufacturing movement. Furthermore, the first scoop is performed at the time much shorter than in the case of other scoops.

Topics: Manufacturing
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A048. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37886.

Hanging scrolls are a traditional Japanese ornamental art, which allow paintings and calligraphy to be unrolled and hung on a wall or in an alcove for display, and rolled up and stored in a box. Hanging scrolls should hang straight when unrolled, and roll smoothly for proper storage, without damaging the artwork beneath. For this purpose, scrolls are lined with several layers of Japanese paper, and adhered together with a weak, aged paste made from wheat starch, which gives the paper the flexibility required when the scrolls are rolled up for storage. While this old paste facilitates winding a scroll because it does not become hard even when dried, it does not have sufficient adhesive effect to grip Japanese paper. In order to increase the adhesive power of this aged paste, craftsmen employ a traditional technique of pounding the paper with a special “pounding brush.”

This pounding technique is an important part of the fabrication process of hanging scrolls, but it is a difficult task for each generation to pass down the proper pounding technique. This study was intended to verify the effects of the pounding technique on aged paste and Japanese paper. We prepared samples with the pounding technique and investigated their adhesive properties of samples by peel text. In order to verify the importance of this traditional technique and the traditional materials, we compared and analyzed the differences in adhesion between craftsmen of different skill and differences introduced by paste concentration and backing paper quality.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A049. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-37927.

A great number of remote laboratories has been implemented in the engineering field. Nevertheless, there are few approaching the bioengineering area. The present paper will describe not only an innovative remote laboratory developed for biomedical engineering education, but also its assessment based on the target public’s feedback. The remote laboratory developed by the research team intends to provide the physiological signals remote acquisition from human body, supported by theory to a greater understanding of learned concepts. This tool is geared towards the undergraduate biomedical engineering students. Therefore, a sample of twelve students took part in a limited study conducted to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the remote laboratory. The study was undertaken using two questionnaires, one distributed before and other after the performance of a remote experiment. Moreover, the information about the learning style/method, employed by each student, was collected in order to devise strategies for future applications development and to make the remote laboratory suitable for the target public.

Topics: Signals , Physiology
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A050. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-38355.

This paper describes the process of integrating engineering design, manufacturing, and production in the area of manufacturing automation. The work was done within the scope of a Mechanical Engineering senior course that’s objective was to introduce students to the processes of advanced manufacturing and to solving practical engineering problems in manufacturing automation. The students’ efforts at integration covered automation of conceptual and geometric designs, automation of machining process, and machine sequence optimization. The CAD/CAM software, CAMM3 Micromodeler, G-code, NX8, Solid Works, DELMIA/QUEST, and Mastercam were used successfully in a sequence. A survey of the students’ opinions about the effectiveness and user friendliness of the software was summarized at the end of the semester. The elements of the course were integrated in the Final Project. Full automation of integrated design and manufacturing data exchange were found to be too difficult to accomplish. However, the use of the automation software in a sequence, together with data export and import, marks a significant step forward towards integrated manufacturing automation. The research to accomplish this will continue and the results will be applied in order to reinforce the teaching and practice of Manufacturing Automation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A051. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-40014.

Students tend to compartmentalize individual classes throughout their time in school; associating that which is taught in one class with only that class. A finite element class offers a unique opportunity to illustrate the connection between several engineering topics through modeling and experiments since it is used to solve many different types of problems (e.g. force-deflection, stress-strain, heat transfer, fluid transport, and vibrations). In addition, providing hands-on experiments is an excellent way to illustrate concepts. Particularly, experiments can help students visualize the additional abstractions present in a finite element model while demonstrating the connections between several prerequisite engineering courses. Here we present experiments that connect finite element modeling with two classes: Strength of Materials and Vibrations. These experiments highlight the effects of finite element modeling choices and illustrate errors in the approximations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A052. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-40099.

This paper addresses the development of software created at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, located in Medellin, Colombia, for the direct and reverse analyses of a serial robot manipulator. Results provided for the software are used for the simulation of the manipulator and also provides data for the control of a serial manipulator prototype. Both, the prototype and its control system were also developed at the University as part of a project to establish a robotics lab. Since joint angles control is affected by the complex relationships presented in the gear transmission mechanisms, the kinematics of gear transmissions is also studied. In this way appropriate mappings between actuators, links and the Cartesian space are established. Software requirements, architecture, and its implementation are addressed. The software includes user-friendly graphical environments that allow one to navigate through all the capabilities of the program. The software has been tested intensively in the prototype and can be extended to serial manipulators with the same structure but different dimensions. Authors expect that virtual tools as the presented in this paper, can help to reduce the time to understand concepts related to motion analysis in the fields of robotics.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
2014;():V005T05A053. doi:10.1115/IMECE2014-40110.

This paper discusses the development of a green energy manufacturing laboratory for student learning experience in the emerging fields of renewable energy and green manufacturing. The development involves a creation of a series of experiments to stimulate discoveries and developments that promise to sustain a wave of new technological innovations on energy and manufacturing throughout the world. The needs for engineering students and practicing engineers to understand sustainability concepts and concerns have been noted by educators, scientists or engineers and all engineering students need to become versed in sustainability ideas. This paper describes key factors in enhancing the ability of future engineering graduates to better contribute to a more sustainable future, preserving natural resources and advancing technological development. Two main components are used to incorporate sustainability into the green energy manufacturing laboratory, including: (1) renewable energy and (2) manufacturing energy efficiency. The efforts presented in the paper also include life-cycle assessment, development of innovative thinking skills, better understanding of sustainability issues, and increasing students’ interests in the engineering and technology programs. A concluding section discusses laboratory development for student hands-on learning experience within the context of a project. The paper will present the how it establishes its long-term sustainability and support through a variety of mechanisms including the energy mission, the award of federal grants, program projects, private foundation support, partnerships, and university-based investments. The GEM/Institute/Community College research model and the supporting the hardware, software and middleware are being installed, developed and enabled by the joint project between two universities in the nation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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