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Experience of Low-Emission Combustion of Aviation and Bio Fuels in Individual Flames After Front Mini-Modules of a Combustion Chamber

[+] Author Affiliations
A. Vasilyev, V. Zakharov, V. Lyashenko, R. Medvedev, O. Chelebyan, A. Maiorova

Central Institute of Aviation Motors, Moscow, Russia

Paper No. GT2018-75419, pp. V04AT04A022; 9 pages
doi:10.1115/GT2018-75419
From:
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 4A: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions
  • Oslo, Norway, June 11–15, 2018
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5105-0
  • Copyright © 2018 by ASME

abstract

In the world economy more and more attention is paid to the environment protection. This has brought a requirement for reduction of harmful substances emission from the gas turbine engine combustors to the foreground scene. Several concepts of low-emission combustion of liquid fuels have been suggested to solve the problem of nitric oxide emission reduction. The authors consider combustion of lean homogenized (quick-mixed) fuel-air mixtures to be the most promising concept for a multi-mode combustion chamber.

Based on the accumulated experience, the authors have formed some notion with respect to design peculiarities of low-emission combustors. Based on such general notions, an attempt has been made to create a model combustion chamber for decreasing harmful substances emission. A design for compact mixing modules has been worked out, as well as for a perforated flame tube. 3D computations have been carried out for the flow in the combustor compartment with 3 mini-modules, so to compare design and experimental data. In calculations the air entered the flame tube through a channel with a rectangular cross-section and, further, through swirlers of three burners (60% of air flow). Besides, the air came into the gap between the flame tube and casing through two side channels and, further, it got inside the flame tube through cooling system holes (40% of air flow).

In parallel, tests have been carried out in similar combustor compartment, using standard fuels, measuring harmful substances emission at gas temperature (T4) up to 1700 K. Data obtained testifies to essential reduction of nitric oxides in the experimental combustor being considered. Emission index NOx does not exceed value of 1 g/kg f in all the conditions investigated. Fuel efficiency is ≥ 99% for all the measurement regimes, except one, where it is 98%.

Additionally, tests have been conducted, using bio fuel obtained from plant raw material. Research results have revealed problems of changeover to such type of fuel mixtures.

Comparing test data with 3D simulation results, it can be noted that there, where computed value of the fuel combustion efficiency coincides with the measured one, NOx value also coincides. However, the emission index value is higher there, where the fuel combustion efficiency value obtained in computation is higher, i.e. where there are zones with higher temperature. The experimental results obtained have confirmed possibility of organizing low-emission combustion, as well as possibility of achieving the nitric oxide emission index level equal to 1 g/kg f at the combustor inlet temperature of 682K. It is evident that more detailed design study is required for transfer of the experimental technology to the working compartment of the combustion chamber.

The achieved level of harmful substances emission, after improvement and implementation of technology, may allow meeting the strictest ICAO requirements and reducing the airport fees significantly.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME

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