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Internal Porosity Detection in Additively Manufactured Parts via Electromechanical Impedance Measurements

[+] Author Affiliations
Charles Tenney, Mohammad I. Albakri, Joseph Kubalak, Logan D. Sturm, Christopher B. Williams, Pablo A. Tarazaga

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

Paper No. SMASIS2017-3856, pp. V001T08A009; 7 pages
  • ASME 2017 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems
  • Volume 1: Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials; Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials; Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting; Emerging Technologies
  • Snowbird, Utah, USA, September 18–20, 2017
  • Conference Sponsors: Aerospace Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5825-7
  • Copyright © 2017 by ASME


The flexibility offered by additive manufacturing (AM) technologies to fabricate complex geometries poses several challenges to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and quality control (QC) techniques. Existing NDE and QC techniques are not optimized for AM processes, materials, or parts. Such lack of reliable means to verify and qualify AM parts is a significant barrier to further industrial adoption of AM technologies.

Electromechanical impedance measurements have been recently introduced as an alternative solution to detect anomalies in AM parts. With this approach, piezoelectric wafers bonded to the part under test are utilized as collocated sensors and actuators. Due to the coupled electromechanical characteristics of piezoelectric materials, the measured electrical impedance of the piezoelectric wafer depends on the mechanical impedance of the part under test, allowing build defects to be detected. This paper investigates the effectiveness of impedance-based NDE approach to detect internal porosity in AM parts. This type of build defects is uniquely challenging as voids are normally embedded within the structure and filled with unhardened model or supporting material. The impact of internal voids on the electromechanical impedance of AM parts is studied at several frequency ranges.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Porosity



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