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Characterization of a Novel Porous Injector for Multi-Lean Direct Injection (M-LDI) Combustor

[+] Author Affiliations
Jianing Li, Umesh Bhayaraju, San-Mou Jeng

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH

Paper No. GT2017-63981, pp. V04AT04A060; 11 pages
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 4A: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions
  • Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, June 26–30, 2017
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5084-8
  • Copyright © 2017 by ASME


A generic novel injector was designed for multi-Lean Direct Injection (M-LDI) combustors. One of the drawbacks of the conventional pressure swirl and prefilming type airblast atomizers is the difficulty of obtaining a uniform symmetric spray under all operating conditions. Micro-channels are needed inside the injector for uniformly distributing the fuel. The problem of non-uniformity is magnified in smaller sized injectors. The non-uniform liquid sheet causes local fuel rich/lean zones leading to higher NOx emissions. To overcome these problems, a novel fuel injector was designed to improve the fuel delivery to the injector by using a porous stainless steel material with 30 μm porosity. The porous tube also acts as a prefilming surface. Liquid and gaseous fuels can be injected through the injector. In the present study, gaseous fuel was injected to investigate injector fuel-air mixing performance. The gaseous fuel was injected through a porous tube between two radial-radial swirling air streams to facilitate fuel-air mixing. The advantage of this injector is that it increases the contact surface area between the fuel-air at the fuel injection point. The increased contact area enhances fuel-air mixing. Fuel-air mixing and combustion studies were carried out for both gaseous and liquid fuel. Flame visualization, and emissions measurements were carried out inside the exit of the combustor.

The measurements were carried out at atmospheric conditions under fuel lean conditions. Natural gas was used as a fuel in these experiments. Fuel-air mixing studies were carried out at different equivalence ratios with and without confinement. The mass fraction distributions were measured at different downstream locations from the injector exit. Flame characterization was carried out by chemiluminescence at different equivalence ratios and inlet air temperatures. Symmetry of the flame, flame length and heat release distribution were analyzed from the flame images. The effects of inlet air temperature and combustion flame temperature on emissions was studied. Emissions were corrected to 15% O2 concentration. NOx emissions increase with inlet air temperature and flame temperature. Effect of flame temperature on NOx concentration is more significant than effect of inlet air temperature. Fuel-air mixing profile was used to obtain mass fraction Probability Density Function (pdf). The pdfs were used for simulations in Chemkin Pro. The measured emissions concentrations at the exit of the injector was compared with simulations. In Chemkin model, a network model with several PSRs (perfectly stirred reactor) were utilized, followed by a mixer and a PFR (plug flow reactor). The comparison between the simulations and the experimental results was investigated.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME



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