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Airfoil Optimization Using Area-Preserving Free-Form Deformation

[+] Author Affiliations
Stavros N. Leloudas, Giorgos A. Strofylas, Ioannis K. Nikolos

Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece

Paper No. IMECE2015-50904, pp. V001T01A013; 10 pages
  • ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Volume 1: Advances in Aerospace Technology
  • Houston, Texas, USA, November 13–19, 2015
  • Conference Sponsors: ASME
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5734-2
  • Copyright © 2015 by ASME


Given the importance of structural integrity of aerodynamic shapes, the necessity of including a cross-sectional area equality constraint among other geometrical and aerodynamic ones arises during the optimization process of an airfoil. In this work an airfoil optimization scheme is presented, based on Area-Preserving Free-Form Deformation (AP FFD), which serves as an alternative technique for the fulfillment of a cross-sectional area equality constraint. The AP FFD is based on the idea of solving an area correction problem, where a minimum possible offset is applied on all free-to-move control points of the FFD lattice, subject to the area preservation constraint. Due to the linearity of the area constraint in each axis, the extraction of an inexpensive closed-form solution to the area preservation problem is possible by using Lagrange Multipliers. A parallel Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm serves as the optimizer, assisted by two Artificial Neural Networks as surrogates. The use of multiple surrogate models, in conjunction with the inexpensive solution to the area correction problem, render the optimization process time efficient. The application of the proposed methodology for wind turbine airfoil optimization demonstrates its applicability and effectiveness.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME



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