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A Simple Mechanical Model for Simulating Cross-Country Skiing Propulsive Force

[+] Author Affiliations
John Bruzzo, Aki Mikkola, Antti Valkeapää

Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland

A. L. Schwab

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Olli Ohtonen, Vesa Linnamo

University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

Paper No. DETC2015-46454, pp. V006T10A002; 11 pages
  • ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
  • Volume 6: 11th International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control
  • Boston, Massachusetts, USA, August 2–5, 2015
  • Conference Sponsors: Design Engineering Division, Computers and Information in Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5716-8
  • Copyright © 2015 by ASME


In this paper, a three-dimensional multibody dynamic model of a cross-country skier is developed and presented where a single propulsion phase is modeled to obtain the kinetic parameters involved in the movement. A professional Olympic-level skier performed the skating technique without poles in a ski tunnel under controlled conditions and on an incline plane. Then, with the use of a force acquisition system attached to the ski bindings and a motion capture system set on site, the leg resultant forces and the movement of specific points of the skier’s lower body were acquired. The data obtained from the motion capture system was used as the prescribed kinematic input data in the multibody model and the measured force was used later as a comparison parameter with the results of the simple model. After simulating the technique, the calculated propulsion forces seem to be in agreement with those measured in the field.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME



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