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Local Measurements of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer on Hot Spots in 3D Compatible Radial Microchannels

[+] Author Affiliations
Fanghao Yang, Mark Schultz, Pritish Parida, Evan Colgan, Robert Polastre, Bing Dang, Cornelia Tsang, Michael Gaynes, John Knickerbocker, Timothy Chainer

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY

Paper No. IPACK2015-48341, pp. V003T10A006; 7 pages
  • ASME 2015 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems collocated with the ASME 2015 13th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels
  • Volume 3: Advanced Fabrication and Manufacturing; Emerging Technology Frontiers; Energy, Health and Water- Applications of Nano-, Micro- and Mini-Scale Devices; MEMS and NEMS; Technology Update Talks; Thermal Management Using Micro Channels, Jets, Sprays
  • San Francisco, California, USA, July 6–9, 2015
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5690-1
  • Copyright © 2015 by ASME


Hot spots and temperature non-uniformities are critical thermal characteristics of current high power electronics and future three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (ICs). Experimental investigation to understand flow boiling heat transfer on hot spots is required for any two-phase cooling configuration targeting these applications. This work investigates hot spot cooling utilizing novel radial microchannels with embedded pin arrays representing through-silicon-via (TSV) interconnects. Inlet orifices were designed to distribute flow in radial channels in a manner that supplies appropriate amounts of coolant to high-power-density cores. Specially designed test vehicles and systems were used to produce non-uniform heat flux profiles with nominally 20 W/cm2 background heating, 200 W/cm2 core heating and up to 21 W/mm2 hot spot (0.2 mm × 0.2 mm) heating to mimic a stackable eight core processor die (20 mm × 20 mm) with two hot spots on each core. The temperatures associated with flow boiling heat transfer at the hot spots were locally measured by resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) integrated between the heat source and sink. At nominal pressure and flow conditions, use of R1234ze in these devices resulted in a maximum hot spot temperature (Ths) of under 63 °C and average Ths of 57 °C at a hot spot power density of 21 W/mm2. A semi-empirical model was used to calculate the equivalent heat transfer rate around the hot spots which can provide a baseline for future studies on local thermal management of hot spots.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME



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