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Preliminary Design Assessments of Pusher Geared Counter-Rotating Open Rotors: Part II — Impact of Low Pressure System Design on Mission Fuel Burn, Certification Noise and Emissions

[+] Author Affiliations
Pablo Bellocq

TOTAL S. A., Pau Cedex, France

Inaki Garmendia

University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, San Sebastian, Spain

Vishal Sethi

Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK

Paper No. GT2015-43816, pp. V001T01A032; 12 pages
doi:10.1115/GT2015-43816
From:
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 1: Aircraft Engine; Fans and Blowers; Marine
  • Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 15–19, 2015
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5662-8
  • Copyright © 2015 by ASME

abstract

In this 2-part publication, the impact of the main low pressure system parameters of a counter rotating Geared Open Rotor (GOR) on mission fuel burn, certification noise and emissions is presented for a 160 PAX medium haul class aircraft.

Due to their high propulsive efficiency, GORs have the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions relative to conventional high bypass ratio turbofans. However, this novel engine architecture presents many design and operational challenges both at engine and aircraft level.

The assessment of the impact of the main low pressure preliminary design parameters of GORs on mission fuel burn, certification noise and emissions is necessary at preliminary design stages in order to identify optimum design regions. These assessments may also aid the development process when compromises need to be performed as a consequence of design, operational or regulatory constraints.

Part I of this two-part publication describes the main low pressure (LP) system design choices for a GOR as well as the preliminary design philosophy and simulation framework developed for the assessments. Part II presents the assessment studies. A fixed reference aircraft and mission were used to evaluate the different GOR engine designs. The results are presented in the form of 1-D or 2-D plots in which one or two design parameters are varied at the same time. The changes in mission fuel burn, certification noise and emissions are expressed as differences relative to a baseline design, due to the fact that preliminary design tools were used for the assessments. The main conclusions of the study are:

• Increasing spacing between the propellers (from 0.65 to 1.3m) reduces noise significantly (∼6 EPNdB for each certification point) with a relatively small fuel burn penalty (∼0.3–0.5%)

• Relative to unclipped designs, 20% clipped CRPs reduce flyover noise by at least 2.5 EPNdB and approach noise by at least 4.5 EPNdB. The corresponding fuel burn penalty is ∼2%.

• Sideline and flyover noise can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the CRP and appropriately controlling CRP rotational speeds. Approach noise can be reduced by either reducing the diameters or the rotational speeds of the propellers.

• Regardless of clipping, reducing the rotational speed of the rear propeller relative to the forward propeller reduces noise and, to a certain limit, also mission fuel burn. Further reductions in rotational speed would have an adverse effect on fuel burn.

• For given rotational speeds of the propellers, the torque ratio of the gearbox is fixed within ±3%.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME

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