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Analytic Modeling and Integral Control of Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Load Populations

[+] Author Affiliations
Azad Ghaffari, Miroslav Krstić

UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA

Scott Moura

UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA

Paper No. DSCC2014-6022, pp. V002T22A002; 8 pages
  • ASME 2014 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference
  • Volume 2: Dynamic Modeling and Diagnostics in Biomedical Systems; Dynamics and Control of Wind Energy Systems; Vehicle Energy Management Optimization; Energy Storage, Optimization; Transportation and Grid Applications; Estimation and Identification Methods, Tracking, Detection, Alternative Propulsion Systems; Ground and Space Vehicle Dynamics; Intelligent Transportation Systems and Control; Energy Harvesting; Modeling and Control for Thermo-Fluid Applications, IC Engines, Manufacturing
  • San Antonio, Texas, USA, October 22–24, 2014
  • Conference Sponsors: Dynamic Systems and Control Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4619-3
  • Copyright © 2014 by ASME


Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) account for approximately 50% of U.S. electricity consumption. Various techniques have been developed to model TCL populations. A High-fidelity analytical model of heterogeneous TCL populations facilitates the aggregate synthesis of power control in power networks. Such a model assists the utility manager to increase the stability margin of the network. The model, also, assists the customer to schedule his/her tasks in order to reduce his/her energy cost. We present a deterministic hybrid partial differential equation (PDE) model which accounts for heterogeneous populations of TCLs, and facilitates analysis of common scenarios like cold load pick up, cycling, and daily and/or seasonal temperature changes to estimate the aggregate performance of the system. The proposed technique is flexible in terms of parameter selection and ease of changing the set-point temperature and deadband width all over the TCL units. We provide guidelines to maintain the numerical stability of the discretized model during computer simulations. Moreover, the proposed model is a close fit to design output feedback algorithms for power control purposes. Our integral output feedback control, designed using the comparison principle, guarantees fast and efficient power tracking for various real-world scenarios. We present simulation results to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control technique.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Topics: Stress , Modeling



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