Development of a Three-Staged Low Emissions Combustor for Industrial Small-Size Gas Turbines FREE

[+] Author Affiliations
Hiroshi Sato, Toshiji Amano, Yoshihiro Iiyama, Masaaki Mori, Tsuneaki Nakamura

Energy Technology Research Institute, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

Paper No. 99-GT-236, pp. V002T02A034; 10 pages
  • ASME 1999 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition
  • Volume 2: Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Combustion and Fuels; Oil and Gas Applications; Cycle Innovations
  • Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, June 7–10, 1999
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-7859-0
  • Copyright © 1999 by ASME


This paper describes the development of an ultra-low emission single-can combustor applicable to 200 kW to 3 MW size natural gas-driven gas turbines for cogeneration systems. The combustor, called a three-staged combustor, was designed by applying the theory of lean premixed staged combustion. The combustor comprises two sets of premixing injector tubes located around the combustor liner downstream of the premixing nozzle equipped with a pilot diffusion nozzle in the center. The combustor controls engine output solely by varying the fuel gas flow without the need for complex variable geometry, such as inlet guide vanes, for combustion airflow control. Reliability, response to load variation and retrofit capability have been greatly improved along with wide low-emission operating range. As the result of the atmospheric rig tests, the three-staged combustor has demonstrated superior performance of 3.5 ppm NOx (O2 = 15%) and 7 ppm CO (O2 = 15%) at full load. Assuming the relationship between NOx emission and pressure and taking into account sequential CO oxidation occurring in the scroll, the performance of the combustor at engine operation is expected to be less than 9 ppm NOx (O2 = 15%) and 50 ppm CO (O2 = 15%) emissions between 25% and 100% engine load. During the development, temperature distribution in the atmospheric combustion was measured in detail to gain comprehensive understanding of the low emissions combustion phenomena. The results of the measurement were compared with the theory of lean premixed staged combustion. Employing the concept of effective mixing ratio, the theory of lean premixed staged combustion has proved to be a powerful method to design a lean premixed staged combustor.

Copyright © 1999 by ASME
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