An Experimental and Modeling Study of Humid Air Premixed Flames FREE

[+] Author Affiliations
Anuj Bhargava, Med Colket, William Sowa

United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT

Kent Casleton, Dan Maloney

U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV

Paper No. 99-GT-008, pp. V002T02A002; 8 pages
  • ASME 1999 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition
  • Volume 2: Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Combustion and Fuels; Oil and Gas Applications; Cycle Innovations
  • Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, June 7–10, 1999
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-7859-0
  • Copyright © 1999 by ASME


An experimental and modeling study has been performed jointly by UTRC and DOE-FETC to determine the effect of humidity in the combustion air on emissions and stability limits of gas turbine premixed flames. This study focuses on developing gas turbine combustor design criteria for the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle. The experiments were conducted at different moisture levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by mass in the air), at a total pressure of 200 psi, pilot levels (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% total fuel), and equivalence ratio (0.4 to 0.8 depending on the moisture levels). The moisture levels were achieved by injecting steam into dry air well upstream of the fuel-air premixing nozzle. Computations were made for comparison to the experiments using GRI Mech 2.11 kinetics and thermodynamic database for modeling the flame chemistry. A Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) network code was used to create a network of PSRs to simulate the flame. Excellent agreement between the measured and modeled NOx (5–10%) was obtained. Trends of added moisture reducing NOx and the effects of equivalence ratio and piloting level were well predicted. The CO predictions were higher by about 30–50%. The CO discrepancies are attributed to in-probe oxidation. The agreement between the data and model predictions over a wide range of conditions indicate the consistency and reliability of the measured data and usefulness of the modeling approach. An analysis of NOx formation revealed that at constant equilibrium temperature, Teq, the presence of steam leads to lower O-atom concentration which reduces “Zeldovich and N2O” NOx while higher OH-atom concentration reduces “Fenimore” NOx.

Copyright © 1999 by ASME
Topics: Modeling , Flames
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