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Experimental Investigation to the Properties of Eutectic Salts by NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2 for Application as High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids

[+] Author Affiliations
Kai Wang, Edgar Molina, Ghazal Dehghani, Ben Xu, Peiwen Li, Qing Hao, Pierre Lucas

University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Mohamad H. Kassaee, Sheldon M. Jeter, Amyn S. Teja

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

Paper No. ES2014-6578, pp. V001T02A040; 6 pages
  • ASME 2014 8th International Conference on Energy Sustainability collocated with the ASME 2014 12th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology
  • Volume 1: Combined Energy Cycles, CHP, CCHP, and Smart Grids; Concentrating Solar Power, Solar Thermochemistry and Thermal Energy Storage; Geothermal, Ocean, and Emerging Energy Technologies; Hydrogen Energy Technologies; Low/Zero Emission Power Plants and Carbon Sequestration; Photovoltaics; Wind Energy Systems and Technologies
  • Boston, Massachusetts, USA, June 30–July 2, 2014
  • Conference Sponsors: Advanced Energy Systems Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4586-8
  • Copyright © 2014 by ASME


A group of eutectic ternary halide salts were surveyed and studied for the objective of developing a high temperature heat transfer fluid with a freezing point below 250°C and a low vapor pressure, below 1.0 atm, at temperatures up to 800°C. The studied salts include: 1) NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2 with a mole fractions of 18.6%-21.9%-59.5% and a melting point of tm=213°C; 2) NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2 with a mole fraction of 13.4%-33.7%-52.9% and a melting point of tm=204°C; and 3) NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2 with mole fraction of 13.8%-41.9%-44.3% and a melting point of tm=229 °C. Vapor pressures of these salts at different temperatures were experimentally obtained using an in-house developed test facility. The results show that vapor pressures of all the three eutectic molten salts are below 1.0 atm at a temperature of 800 °C. The salt of ZnCl2-KCl-NaCl in mole faction of 44.3%-41.9%-13.8% has lowest vapor pressure which is only about 1.0 atm even at a temperature of 900 °C. Viscosities of these salts were measured in the temperature range from after melting to 850°C. At low temperatures near their melting points of the salts, the viscosities are about 16 × 10−3Pa s, while at high temperatures above 700°C the viscosities are around 4 × 10−3Pa s, which is satisfactorily low to serve as heat transfer fluid for circulation in a CSP system. Both the vapor pressure and the viscosities of the studied three eutectic salts demonstrated satisfaction to serve as high temperature heat transfer fluids. Other thermal and transport properties of these salts are expected to be reported in the future for screening out a satisfactory high temperature heat transfer fluid.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME



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