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Influence of Degree of Reaction on Turbine Performance for Pulsating Flow Conditions

[+] Author Affiliations
Harald Roclawski

Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

Marc Gugau, Florian Langecker

BorgWarner Turbosystems Engineering GmbH, Kirchheimbolanden, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

Martin Böhle

Technical University Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

Paper No. GT2014-25829, pp. V01BT24A012; 13 pages
doi:10.1115/GT2014-25829
From:
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2014: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 1B: Marine; Microturbines, Turbochargers and Small Turbomachines; Steam Turbines
  • Düsseldorf, Germany, June 16–20, 2014
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4558-5
  • Copyright © 2014 by ASME

abstract

This paper presents a study on the influence of the degree of reaction (DoR) on turbine performance under highly pulsating inflow. A reference test turbine wheel is designed and scaled to three different wheel diameters while an identical flow capacity of all three turbines is provided by adjusting the volute size. Hence, the three turbines differ by their DoR, inertia and efficiency characteristic. The investigation is done completely numerically using highly validated models. Naturally, the pulsating flow character of a 4-cylinder gasoline engine requires unsteady CFD. In addition steady-state turbine maps were calculated beforehand as a reference base.

The results of the steady state calculation show that for the combination of the bigger turbine wheel with the smaller turbine volute the peak efficiency is smaller but is shifted towards higher pressure ratios respectively to lower blade speed ratios. This is fundamentally beneficial for turbines in automotive turbochargers for gasoline engines characterized by highly pulsating flow conditions, in particular at lower engine speeds. For the transient flow calculations with pulsating turbine inflow, the hysteresis loop and the turbine power generation was investigated. It is shown that the smallest volute compared to the biggest one causes a more contracted hysteresis loop combined with increased power output within one pulse cycle.

In order to include the influence of moment of inertia, the turbines with varying DoR but same flow capacity were analytically compared with a 1D code simulating engine load step operation. Thus, the paper shows the effect of turbine DoR on both, steady-state turbine performance under pulsating inflow and the capability for optimum engine load step operation.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME

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