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Methodology to Characterize Heat Transfer Phenomena in Small Automotive Turbochargers: Experiments and Modelling Based Analysis

[+] Author Affiliations
J. R. Serrano, P. Olmeda, F. J. Arnau, A. Dombrovsky

Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain

L. Smith

Jaguar Land Rover Ltd., Coventry, UK

Paper No. GT2014-25179, pp. V01BT24A003; 13 pages
doi:10.1115/GT2014-25179
From:
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2014: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 1B: Marine; Microturbines, Turbochargers and Small Turbomachines; Steam Turbines
  • Düsseldorf, Germany, June 16–20, 2014
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4558-5
  • Copyright © 2014 by ASME

abstract

These days great effort is devoted to the study of turbocharging in order to minimize fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of turbocharged reciprocating engines. Among all the processes taking place in small automotive turbochargers, the heat transfer phenomenon is one of the least analysed in a systematic way. However turbocharger heat transfer phenomena are very important at low engine loads. An accurate prediction of gas temperatures at turbine and compressor outlet and fluid temperatures at the water and oil outlet ports is not possible without considering heat transfer phenomena in the turbocharger.

In the present work a comprehensive study of these phenomena is presented, showing their relevance compared to gas enthalpy variations through the turbomachinery. The study provides an experimental methodology to consider the different heat fluxes in the turbocharger and modelling them by means of a lumped capacitance heat transfer model.

The input data required for the model is obtained experimentally by a proper combination of both steady and transient tests. These tests are performed in different test benches, in which compressible fluids (gas) and incompressible fluids (oil) are used in a given sequence. The experimental data allows developing heat transfer correlations for the different turbocharger elements. These correlations take into account all the possible heat fluxes, discriminating between internal and external heat transfer.

In order to analyse the relative importance of heat transfer phenomena in the predictability of the turbocharger performance and the different related variables; model results, in hot and cold conditions, have been compared with those provided by the standard technique, consisting on using look up maps of the turbocharger.

The analysis of these results evidences the highly diabatic operative areas of the turbocharger and it provides clearly ground rules for using hot or cold maps. In addition, paper conclusions advise about using or not a heat transfer model, depending on the turbocharger variables and the operative conditions that one desires to predict.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME

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