Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Examination of Geometric Effects on Stress Wave Propagation and Applications in Football Helmet Design

[+] Author Affiliations
Kyle Johnson, R. Prabhu

Mississippi State University, Starkville, MSMississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS

M. W. Trim

Naval Surface Warfare Center, West Bethesda, MD

Mark F. Horstemeyer

Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS

Paper No. SBC2013-14544, pp. V01BT47A006; 2 pages
  • ASME 2013 Summer Bioengineering Conference
  • Volume 1B: Extremity; Fluid Mechanics; Gait; Growth, Remodeling, and Repair; Heart Valves; Injury Biomechanics; Mechanotransduction and Sub-Cellular Biophysics; MultiScale Biotransport; Muscle, Tendon and Ligament; Musculoskeletal Devices; Multiscale Mechanics; Thermal Medicine; Ocular Biomechanics; Pediatric Hemodynamics; Pericellular Phenomena; Tissue Mechanics; Biotransport Design and Devices; Spine; Stent Device Hemodynamics; Vascular Solid Mechanics; Student Paper and Design Competitions
  • Sunriver, Oregon, USA, June 26–29, 2013
  • Conference Sponsors: Bioengineering Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5561-4
  • Copyright © 2013 by ASME


A recent study of college and high school football players demonstrated that 5.1% sustained at least one concussion in a single season. Considering the number of individuals that participate in football in the United States, this percentage equates to a staggering number [1]. The information and attention dealing with concussions and traumatic brain injury (TBI) has greatly increased recently, and represents a need for more advanced helmets that can eliminate concussions as well as other forms of TBI. In order to obtain this goal, lessons can be learned from high speed impacts in nature, particularly the shock-mitigating effects of the bighorn sheep’s (or ram’s) horn and woodpecker’s hyoid bone. For instance, during fights between male bighorn sheep, the rams clash together at speeds up to 5.5 m/s, causing forces up to 3400 N [2]. Even while undergoing these tremendous forces, the animals are rarely injured, which leads to the notion that the horn geometry plays a role in mitigating the shock wave. The woodpecker’s hyoid bone extends around the skull in a spiral shape. It aids the woodpecker in extending its tongue and helps bypass vibrations generated from drumming, which protects the brain from shock [3]. Does the reoccurrence of this curious (tapered spiral) shape throughout nature have some significance in regards to energy dissipation and shock absorption abilities inherent to its geometry? Answering this was the primary goal of this study.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In