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Four-Wire Bridge Measurements of van der Pauw Stress Sensors on (100) and (111) Silicon

[+] Author Affiliations
Richard C. Jaeger, Mohammad Motalab, Safina Hussain, Jeffrey C. Suhling

Auburn University, Auburn, AL

Paper No. IPACK2013-73249, pp. V001T06A003; 11 pages
  • ASME 2013 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems
  • Volume 1: Advanced Packaging; Emerging Technologies; Modeling and Simulation; Multi-Physics Based Reliability; MEMS and NEMS; Materials and Processes
  • Burlingame, California, USA, July 16–18, 2013
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5575-1
  • Copyright © 2013 by ASME


Four-wire resistance characterization of van der Pauw stress sensors is discussed. Under the proper orientations and excitations, the output of the four-contact sensors can be shown to depend upon only the in-plane shear stress or the in-plane normal stress difference on (100) silicon. The other stress terms are cancelled out by the symmetry of the structure, and the measurements are inherently temperature compensated. In bridge-mode, each sensor requires only one measurement and produces an output voltage that is directly proportional to the shear stress or in-plane normal stress difference, and the sensitivity is 3.16 times that of the equivalent resistor sensors, just as in the normal van der Pauw mode. Experimental, theoretical, finite-difference and finite-element and simulation results are presented demonstrating the behavior of the sensor. The two sensors can be merged into one eight-contact device, or n- and p-tye sensors can be overlaid in standard IC processes. Similar results apply to sensors on (111) silicon.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME



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