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A Study on the Performance of Steam Injection in a Typical Micro Gas Turbine

[+] Author Affiliations
Ward De Paepe, Frank Delattin, Francesco Contino, Jacques De Ruyck

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

Svend Bram

Erasmushogeschool Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

Paper No. GT2013-94569, pp. V05AT23A011; 10 pages
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
  • Volume 5A: Industrial and Cogeneration; Manufacturing Materials and Metallurgy; Marine; Microturbines, Turbochargers, and Small Turbomachines
  • San Antonio, Texas, USA, June 3–7, 2013
  • Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5519-5
  • Copyright © 2013 by ASME


Microturbines are very promising for small-scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production. Due to the simultaneous production of heat and power, the Turbec T100 microturbine CHP System has the potential of realizing considerable energy savings, compared to classic separate production. The power production however is strictly bound to the heat production. A reduction in heat demand will mostly lead to a shutdown of the unit, since electric efficiency is too low and not competitive with electricity from the net. The reduced amount of running hours has a severe negative impact on the lifetime profitability of the unit. A solution is proposed by injecting auto-generated steam in the T100 micro Gas Turbine (mGT), in order to increase electric efficiency during periods with low heat demand. By doing so, a forced shut down of the unit can be avoided.

The goal of this study was to investigate and quantify the beneficial effect of steam injection on the performance of a typical recuperated mGT. This paper reports on an extended series of steam injection experiments performed on a Turbec T100 microturbine. Previous experiments revealed the necessity for a more accurate determination of the mass flow rate and more precise compressor characteristics. Therefore the test rig was equipped with an additional oxygen analyzer in the exhaust and a pressure gauge to allow for the accurate determination of the pressure ratio. Experiments with steam injection in the compressor outlet of the T100 were performed to demonstrate and validate the benefits of introducing steam in the cycle and to verify its ability to handle the injected steam. It is expected that the mGT will produce a constant power at reduced shaft speed and increased electric efficiency.

Steam injection experiments validated the increase in electric efficiency during stable operation of the mGT. At nominal 100 kWe power production, the replacement of 3.5% of the air mass flow with steam (adiabatic steam injection limit) resulted in an absolute electric efficiency increase of 1.7%. The experiments successfully demonstrated the potential for steam/water injection in the T100 mGT.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME



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