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Numerical Analysis of the Biomechanical Characteristics and Impact Response of the Human Chest

[+] Author Affiliations
Hideyuki Kimpara, Masami Iwamoto, Isao Watanabe, Kazuo Miki

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

Jong B. Lee, King H. Yang, Albert I. King

Wayne State University

Paper No. IMECE2004-60983, pp. 23-33; 11 pages
  • ASME 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Transportation: Transportation and Environment
  • Anaheim, California, USA, November 13 – 19, 2004
  • Conference Sponsors: Transportation
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4722-5 | eISBN: 0-7918-4178-2, 0-7918-4179-0, 0-7918-4180-4
  • Copyright © 2004 by ASME


The mass density, Young’s modulus (E), tangent modulus (Et ) and yield stress (σy ) of the human ribs, sternum, internal organs and muscles play important roles when determining impact responses of the chest associated with pendulum impact. A series of parametric studies was conducted using a commercially available three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) of the whole human body, to determine the effect of changing these material properties on the impact force, chest deflection, and the number of rib fractures and fractured ribs. Results from this parametric study indicate that the initial chest stiffness was mainly influenced by the mass density of the muscles covering the torso. The number of rib fractures and fractured ribs were primarily determined by E, Et and σy of the ribcage and sternum. Similarly, the E, Et and σy of the ribcage, which is defined as the bony skeleton of the chest, and sternum and E of the internal organs contributed to the maximum chest deflection in frontal impact, while the maximum chest deflection for lateral impact was mainly affected by the E, Et and σy of the ribcage.

Copyright © 2004 by ASME



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