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The Role of Intermetallics in Electromigration in Solder Pumps for Lead Free Solder Structure and Its Solder Pad Combination

[+] Author Affiliations
S. B. Park, Ganesh R. Iyer

State University of New York at Binghamton

Paper No. IMECE2004-62494, pp. 271-279; 9 pages
  • ASME 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Electronic and Photonic Packaging, Electrical Systems Design and Photonics, and Nanotechnology
  • Anaheim, California, USA, November 13 – 19, 2004
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4707-1 | eISBN: 0-7918-4178-2, 0-7918-4179-0, 0-7918-4180-4
  • Copyright © 2004 by ASME


It is attempted to quantify the role of intermetallics for the electromigration in flip chip solder interconnects (C4). Intermetallics are formed at the interface of solder and metallic pad where they serve as metallic bonding agent. For the transition to the Pb-free solder interconnects, electromigration is one of the prime reliability concerns. It is observed that some flip chip solder interconnect fails earlier than the estimated time to failure. It is explained by the effect of intermetallics formed by solder and different matching pad metallurgies. This paper quantifies the role of the intermetallics in the time to failure for a system. A series of experiments are being conducted to determine the current exponent and activation energies of the Black’s equation for different solder and pad metallurgy combinations. Two test structures are proposed. The first test structure was made to study the role of the intermetallics and the second structure was made to characterize the pure solder’s electromigration.

Copyright © 2004 by ASME



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