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A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Gas Propelled Liquid Droplet Impinging Onto a Heated Surface

[+] Author Affiliations
Andres Diaz, Alfonso Ortega

Villanova University, Villanova, PA

Paper No. IMECE2011-62268, pp. 187-196; 10 pages
  • ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Volume 10: Heat and Mass Transport Processes, Parts A and B
  • Denver, Colorado, USA, November 11–17, 2011
  • Conference Sponsors: ASME
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5496-9
  • Copyright © 2011 by ASME


Due to the higher rates of heat transfer and the spatial homogeneity of heat removal that can be achieved with spray cooling, these systems have been widely proposed for cooling high heat flux electronics. In particular, gas-assisted spray cooling systems, in which a vapor phase jet propels the liquid phase droplets to a target surface, have been shown to be even more efficient in removing heat than sprays consisting of droplets alone. However, in all the studies found in the literature, in which the basic problem has been approached as a single-droplet event, only the behavior of a free falling droplet has been studied. To date, there is no fundamental investigation of the physics of gas or vapor-assisted spray cooling. To study this problem an experimental and numerical investigation of the deformation process of a liquid droplet transported by a gas stream impinging on a heated surface was performed. A preliminary study [1] has shown that increasing air jet velocities leads to an augmentation in liquid-solid contact area. Nevertheless, for low We*, the increase in droplet spreading diameter is only a consequence of the increase in droplet kinetic energy before the impact rather than the pressure and shear stress imposed by the gas during the spreading. An order of magnitude analysis showed that shear effects are negligible compared to the normal pressure of the jet. A first order analytical model of the droplet spreading behavior indicated that the jet stagnation pressure acting on the droplet surface becomes important at relatively low Weo and higher We* by contributing to the reduction in liquid film thickness and to the augmentation in liquid-solid contact area. It was shown that the work done by the gas stream in deforming the liquid droplet must be at least 10% of the initial kinetic energy of the droplet to start having a significant effect on the droplet deformation during the early stage of impact.

Copyright © 2011 by ASME



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