Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

CTOA Measurements of Welds in X100 Pipeline Steel

[+] Author Affiliations
Elizabeth Drexler, Philippe Darcis, Christopher McCowan, J. Matthew Treinen, Avigdor Shtechman, Rony Reuven, Thomas Siewert, J. David McColskey

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO

Robert Smith, James Merritt

U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC

Paper No. IPC2008-64369, pp. 287-292; 6 pages
  • 2008 7th International Pipeline Conference
  • 2008 7th International Pipeline Conference, Volume 3
  • Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 29–October 3, 2008
  • Conference Sponsors: International Petroleum Technology Institute and the Pipeline Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4859-3 | eISBN: 798-0-7918-3835-8


A suite of tests characterizing X100 pipeline steels was initiated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder. Part of the test matrix included testing the toughness of the base metal, welds, and heat-affected zones (HAZ) by use of modified double cantilever beam specimens for crack tip opening angle (CTOA) testing. The thickness of the test section was either 3 mm or 8 mm. Girth welds perpendicular to the growing crack, and seam welds and their HAZ parallel with the crack, were tested with a crosshead displacement rate of 0.02 mm/s (with the exception of one girth weld specimen for each thickness, which were tested at 0.002 mm/s). Analysis of the data revealed some general differences among the weld specimens. The tests where the crack ran perpendicular to the girth weld demonstrated changes in CTOA and crack growth rate as the crack moved through the base metal, HAZ, and weld material. We observed the values for CTOA increasing and the crack propagation slowing as the crack moved through the weld and approached the fusion line. The stress field appeared to be strongly influenced by the thin HAZ, the fusion line, and the tougher base material. Consequently, the CTOA of the HAZ associated with the girth weld was larger than that of the seam-weld HAZ. It was not possible to obtain CTOA data for the seam weld, with the crack parallel within the weld, because the crack immediately diverted out of the stronger weld material into the weaker HAZ. CTOA values from both girth welds and seam-weld HAZ were smaller than those of the base material. The 8 mm thick specimens consistently produced larger CTOA values than their 3 mm counterparts, introducing the possibility that there may be limitations to CTOA as a material property. Further tests are needed to determine whether a threshold thickness exists below which the constraints and stress field are sufficiently changed to affect the CTOA value.



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In