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A Combined Rarefied and Continuum Flow Regime Model for Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Manufacturing Processes

[+] Author Affiliations
Kevin Gott, Anil K. Kulkarni, Jogender Singh

The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA

Paper No. IMECE2009-10796, pp. 15-21; 7 pages
  • ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Volume 9: Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems, Parts A, B and C
  • Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, November 13–19, 2009
  • Conference Sponsors: ASME
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4382-6 | eISBN: 978-0-7918-3863-1
  • Copyright © 2009 by ASME


Several modifications to physical vapor deposition (PVD) models are proposed to address the deficiencies in current theoretical studies. Simple calculations show that the flow regime of PVD fabrications will most likely vary from a continuum flow to a rarefied flow in the vacuum chamber as the vapor cloud expands toward the substrate. The flow regime for an evaporated ideal gas is calculated and then an improved equation of state is constructed and analyzed that more accurately describes vaporized metals. The result, combined with experimental observations, suggests PVD fabrication is best represented by a multi-regime flow. Then, a CFD analysis is summarized that further validates the multi-regime analysis hypothesis. Finally, a methodology for constructing and implementing the results of a theoretical multi-regime PVD model is presented.

Copyright © 2009 by ASME



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