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Characterizing and Minimizing Voids in Quad Flat No-Lead Pack (QFN) Device Assembly Using Pb-Free Solder Alloys

[+] Author Affiliations
Rangaraj Dhanasekaran, Harish Gadepalli, S. Manian Ramkumar

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY

Tim Jensen, Ed Briggs

Indium Corporation, Clinton, NY

Paper No. InterPACK2009-89304, pp. 39-47; 9 pages
  • ASME 2009 InterPACK Conference collocated with the ASME 2009 Summer Heat Transfer Conference and the ASME 2009 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability
  • ASME 2009 InterPACK Conference, Volume 1
  • San Francisco, California, USA, July 19–23, 2009
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4359-8 | eISBN: 978-0-7918-3851-8
  • Copyright © 2009 by ASME


Quad Flatpack No lead (QFN) packages have become a popular choice in electronics packaging due to its small form factor. They are also gaining rapid industry acceptance because of its excellent thermal and electrical performance. The bottom side of the QFN package has a large thermal pad. This exposed die attach pad effectively conducts heat to the PCB and also provides a stable ground connection. Effective soldering of this surface to the pad on the PCB is required for good thermal dissipation and component functionality. The exposed thermal pad presents various challenges during the surface mount assembly process. One major challenge is solder void formation. Voids are primarily formed due to the entrapment of volatiles in flux outgassing during the reflow process. The primary objective of this study is to determine optimal parameters to minimize void formation in QFN packages (QFN16, QFN20, QFN28 and QFN32), specifically the reflow profile, lead-free solder paste and stencil aperture opening for the thermal pad. A systematic DOE based approach was used to arrive at conclusions, using the ratio of void volume on the thermal pad to the actual volume of solder paste printed as the response variable. Various graphs are presented to understand the impact of different parameters. Interaction graphs are used to determine optimal settings for each parameter.

Copyright © 2009 by ASME



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