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Effect of Design Parameters on Drop Test Performance of Wafer Level Chip Scale Packages (WLCSP)

[+] Author Affiliations
Pushkraj Tumne, Vikram Venkatadri, Daryl Santos, Ross Havens, Krishnaswami Srihari

SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY

Santosh Kudtarkar, Michael Delaus

Analog Devices, Wilmington, MA

Paper No. IPACK2011-52078, pp. 713-721; 9 pages
  • ASME 2011 Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Systems
  • ASME 2011 Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Systems, MEMS and NEMS: Volume 1
  • Portland, Oregon, USA, July 6–8, 2011
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4461-8
  • Copyright © 2011 by ASME


Today’s consumer market demands electronics that are smaller, faster and cheaper. To cater to these demands, novel materials, new designs, and new packaging technologies are introduced frequently. Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP) is one of the emerging package technologies that have the key advantages of reduced cost and smaller footprint. The portable consumer electronics are frequently dropped; hence the emphasis of reliability is shifting towards study of effects of mechanical shock loading increasingly. Mechanical loading typically induces brittle fractures (also known as intermetallic failures) between the solder bumps and bond pads at the silicon die side. This type of failure mechanism is typically characterized by the board level drop test. WLCSP is a variant of the flip-chip interconnection technique. In WLCSPs, the active side of the die is inverted and connected to the PCB by solder balls. The size of these solder balls is typically large enough (300μm pre-reflow for 0.5mm pitch and 250μm pre-reflow for 0.4mm pitch) to avoid use of underfill that is required for the flip-chip interconnects. Several variations are incorporated in the package design parameters to meet the performance, reliability, and footprint requirements of the package assembly. The design parameters investigated in this effort are solder ball compositions with different Silver (Ag) content, backside lamination with different thickness, WLCSP type –Direct and Re-Distribution Layer (RDL), bond pad thickness, and sputtered versus electroplated Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) deposition methods for 8×8, 9×9, and 10×10 array sizes. The test vehicles built using these design parameters were drop tested using JEDEC recommended test boards and conditions as per JESD22-B11. Cross sectional analysis was used to identify, confirm, and classify the intermetallic, and bulk solder failures. The objective of this research was to quantify the effects and interactions of WLCSP design parameters through drop test. The drop test data was collected and treated as a right censored data. Further, it was analyzed by fitting empirical distributions using the grouped and un-grouped data approach. Data analysis showed that design parameters had a significant effect on the drop performance and played a vital role in influencing the package reliability.

Copyright © 2011 by ASME



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