Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Chemical Decontamination for Decommissioning (DFD) and DFDX

[+] Author Affiliations
Ronald Morris

Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Spartanburg, SC

Paper No. ICEM2010-40007, pp. 267-272; 6 pages
  • ASME 2010 13th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management
  • ASME 2010 13th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Volume 1
  • Tsukuba, Japan, October 3–7, 2010
  • Conference Sponsors: Nuclear Engineering Division and Environmental Engineering Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-5452-5 | eISBN: 978-0-7918-3888-4
  • Copyright © 2010 by ASME


DFD is an acronym for the “Decontamination for Decommissioning” process developed in 1996 by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The process was designed to remove radioactivity from the surfaces of metallic components to allow these components to be recycled or free-released for disposal as non-radioactive. DFD is a cyclic process consisting of fluoroboric acid, potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The process continues to uniformly remove base metal once oxide dissolution is complete. The DFD process has been applied on numerous components, sub-systems and systems including the reactor systems at Big Rock Point and Maine Yankee in the United States, and the Jose Cabrera (Zorita) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Spain. The Big Rock Point site has been returned to Greenfield and at Maine Yankee the land under the license was reduced for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In the upcoming months the Zorita NPP in Spain will initiate dismantlement and decommissioning activities to return the site to a non-nuclear facility. The development of the EPRI DFD process has been an ongoing evolution and much has been learned from its use in the past. It is effective in attaining very high decontamination factors; however, DFD also produces secondary waste in the form of ion exchange resins. This secondary waste generation adds to the decommissioning quota but this can be improved upon at a time when radioactive waste storage at nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites is limited. To reduce the amount of secondary waste, EPRI has developed the DFDX process. This new process is an enhancement to the DFD process and produces a smaller amount of metallic waste rather than resin waste; this reduction in volume being a factor of ten or greater. Electrochemical ion exchange cells are the heart of the DFDX system and contain electrodes and cation ion exchange resin. It has been used very successfully in small system applications and the next evolution is to design, build and implement a system for the chemical decontamination for decommissioning of larger reactor systems and components, and Full System Decontamination (FSD). The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference point for those planning future chemical decontaminations for plant decommissioning. It is based on actual experience from the work already performed to date and the planned development of the DFDX process.

Copyright © 2010 by ASME



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In