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Analysis of Properties of Adulterated Fuel and Its Effects on Internal Combustion Engines and the Environment: A Case Study Tema Metropolitan Assembly, Tema, Ghana

[+] Author Affiliations
A. Simons, E. K. Gbadam

University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana

Paper No. ICEF2010-35047, pp. 903-909; 7 pages
  • ASME 2010 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference
  • ASME 2010 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference
  • San Antonio, Texas, USA, September 12–15, 2010
  • Conference Sponsors: Internal Combustion Engine Division
  • ISBN: 978-0-7918-4944-6 | eISBN: 978-0-7918-3882-2
  • Copyright © 2010 by ASME


This paper seeks to investigate the sources and the level of fuel contamination in the Ghanaian market and its effects on internal combustion engines and the environment. A survey was conducted in and around the Tema Metropolitan Assembly to collect samples of fuels from different retailers without letting them know the intentions of the buyer (that these are for research). Experiments were carried out at Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), Tema, Ghana, on the two conventional fuels collected from these sources. The analysis of the results showed that fuel from the fuel tank and “Zamelama” (small scale petrol retailers) filling station had the highest level of contamination as far as the experiment on petrol (gasoline) was concerned. With the diesel fuel experiment, most of the values obtained were high but within the standard range at the refinery. Information obtained from questionnaires given to fuel tanker drivers, mechanics and sales persons at various filling stations indicated that the adulteration is done using Naphtha and Kerosene. Consequently, other experiments were carried out at TOR using different proportions of Naphtha and Kerosene and the resultant properties as a result of the adulteration were analyzed. It was observed that the adulterated fuels have undesirable properties such as High Gum Content, low Research Octane Number (RON) and Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) values which may lead to engine damage and pollution of the environment due to increased exhaust emissions. Considering the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that Petrol adulterated with Naphtha or Kerosene should not be used in Internal Combustion Engines. This is because of its undesirable properties such as higher Gum content, lower RON and RVP values which lead to engine damage and pollution of the environment due to increased exhaust emissions.

Copyright © 2010 by ASME



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