0

Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Design and Analysis of Zero CO2 Emission Powerplants for the Transportation Sector

[+] Author Affiliations
David L. Damm, Andrei G. Fedorov

Georgia Institute of Technology

Paper No. IMECE2006-14172, pp. 83; 1 page
doi:10.1115/IMECE2006-14172
From:
  • ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Heat Transfer, Volume 1
  • Chicago, Illinois, USA, November 5 – 10, 2006
  • Conference Sponsors: Heat Transfer Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4784-5 | eISBN: 0-7918-3790-4
  • Copyright © 2006 by ASME

abstract

Hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles provide a feasible pathway to elimination of CO2 emissions from the transportation sector if the hydrogen is produced from renewable energy sources, or the CO2 from hydrogen production is sequestered on a large scale. The lack of a hydrogen distribution infrastructure and the lack of dense hydrogen storage technology are fundamental roadblocks along this path. One alternative approach is to use a high energy-density liquid fuel (natural or synthetic, such as methanol) as an intermediate hydrogen carrier, and generate the hydrogen on demand in an onboard fuel processor. This demands, however, development of technologies for on-board CO2 capture, storage, and recycling to eliminate direct emission into the atmosphere. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of feasibility of on-board carbon dioxide sequestration as well as various process/design schemes for the hybrid power generation-CO2 sequestration system. The primary difficulty in capturing CO2 from small-scale power plants (such as the internal combustion engine) is the extremely diluted state of CO2 in the exhaust gases. In contrast, onboard fuel processors have the potential to provide a highly concentrated CO2 exhaust stream, which could be separated, liquefied, and stored onboard at ambient temperatures with a minimal energy penalty. Current research efforts in small scale fuel processing are focused on producing a hydrogen-rich (or pure) stream from liquid hydrocarbon fuel with high yield and at a sufficient rate to provide the necessary vehicle power. Very few efforts reported in the open literature also address the need to capture the byproduct CO2 that is produced. The additional requirement of CO2 capture calls for fundamental change in the fuel processing strategy and reformer design. Several process or design schemes for fuel processing are identified, which produce hydrogen while allowing for CO2 capture. For example, in autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon or alcohol fuels, catalytic reactions of the fuel with air yield a product stream (hydrogen and CO2 ) that is diluted with nitrogen. Under the added constraint of CO2 capture, advanced oxygen membranes could be used to supply pure oxygen rather than air to the reaction, resulting in a more concentrated, nitrogen-free product stream which is favorable for CO2 capture. Simultaneously, this improves the efficiency of downstream hydrogen purification and utilization processes; thus, the penalties associated with CO2 capture are partially offset. In a similar manner, steam reforming of liquid fuels may not be the most attractive fuel processing option for automotive applications without consideration of CO2 capture. However, because the product stream is never diluted with air, it becomes a very attractive option for integrated fuel processing/CO2 sequestration systems. Consideration of CO2 capture early in the design stages of the fuel processing system allows a portion of the energetic penalty for CO2 sequestration to be recovered. While the design, analysis, and demonstration of an integrated onboard fuel processor with CO2 capture and storage is the ultimate goal, this technology is relevant to all small-scale, distributed power generation applications and should be an integral part of future CO2 abatement strategies.

Copyright © 2006 by ASME

Figures

Tables

Interactive Graphics

Video

Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In