0

Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

The Effects of Tibiofemoral Angle and Body Weight on the Stress Field in the Knee Joint

[+] Author Affiliations
Nicholas H. Yang, H. Nayeb-Hashemi, Paul K. Canavan

Northeastern University, Boston, MA

Paper No. IMECE2007-41344, pp. 103-111; 9 pages
doi:10.1115/IMECE2007-41344
From:
  • ASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Volume 2: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering
  • Seattle, Washington, USA, November 11–15, 2007
  • Conference Sponsors: ASME
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4296-7 | eISBN: 0-7918-3812-9
  • Copyright © 2007 by ASME

abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of articular cartilage that may lead to pain, limited mobility and joint deformation. It has been reported that abnormal stresses and irregular stress distribution may lead to the initiation and progression of OA. Body weight and the frontal plane tibiofemoral angle are two biomechanical factors which could lead to abnormal stresses and irregular stress distribution at the knee. The tibiofemoral angle is defined as the angle made by the intersection of the mechanical axis of the tibia with the mechanical axis of the femur in the frontal plane. In this study, reflective markers were placed on the subjects’ lower extremity bony landmarks and tracked using motion analysis. Motion analysis data and force platform data were collected together during single-leg stance, double-leg stance and walking gait from three healthy subjects with no history of osteoarthritis (OA), one with normal tibiofemoral angle (7.67°), one with varus (bow-legged) angle (0.20°) and one with valgus (knocked-knee) angle (10.34°). The resultant moment and forces in the knee were derived from the data of the motion analysis and force platform experiments using inverse dynamics. The results showed that Subject 1 (0.20° valgus) had a varus moment of 0.38 N-m/kg, during single-leg stance, a varus moment of 0.036 N-m/kg during static double-leg stance and a maximum varus moment of 0.49 N-m/kg during the stance phase of the gait cycle. Subject 2 (7.67° valgus tibiofemoral angle) had a varus moment of 0.31 N-m/kg, during single-leg stance, a valgus moment of 0.046 N-m/kg during static double-leg stance and a maximum varus moment of 0.37 N-m/kg during the stance phase of the gait cycle. Subject 3 (10.34° valgus tibiofemoral angle) had a varus moment of 0.30 N-m/kg, during single-leg stance, a valgus moment of 0.040 N-m/kg during static double-leg stance and a maximum varus moment of 0.34 N-m/kg during the stance phase of the gait cycle. In general, the results show that the varus moment at the knee joint increased with varus knee alignment in static single-leg stance and gait. The results of the motion analysis were used to obtain the knee joint contact stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Three-dimensional (3-D) knee models were constructed with sagittal view MRI of the knee. The knee model included the bony geometry of the knee, the femoral and tibial articular cartilage, the lateral and medial menisci and the cruciate and the collateral ligaments. In initial FEA simulations, bones were modeled as rigid, articular cartilage was modeled as isotropic elastic, menisci were modeled as transversely isotopic elastic, and the ligaments were modeled as 1-D nonlinear springs. The material properties of the different knee components were taken from previously published literature of validated FEA models. The results showed that applying the axial load and varus moment determined from the motion analysis to the FEA model Subject 1 had a Von Mises stress of 1.71 MPa at the tibial cartilage while Subjects 2 and 3 both had Von Mises stresses of approximately 1.191 MPa. The results show that individuals with varus alignment at the knee will be exposed to greater stress at the medial compartment of the articular cartilage of the tibia due to the increased varus moment that occurs during single leg support.

Copyright © 2007 by ASME
Topics: Weight (Mass) , Stress , Knee

Figures

Tables

Interactive Graphics

Video

Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In