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Passive Immersion Cooling of 3-D Stacked Dies

[+] Author Affiliations
Karl J. L. Geisler

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Avram Bar-Cohen

University of Maryland, College Park, MD

Paper No. IPACK2007-33619, pp. 439-452; 14 pages
  • ASME 2007 InterPACK Conference collocated with the ASME/JSME 2007 Thermal Engineering Heat Transfer Summer Conference
  • ASME 2007 InterPACK Conference, Volume 1
  • Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 8–12, 2007
  • Conference Sponsors: Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4277-0 | eISBN: 0-7918-3801-3
  • Copyright © 2007 by ASME


Three-dimensional die stacking increases integrated circuit (IC) density, providing increased capabilities and improved electrical performance on a smaller printed circuit board (PCB) footprint area. However, these advantages come at the expense of higher volumetric heat generation rates and decreased thermal and mechanical access to the die areas. Passive immersion cooling, allowing for buoyancy-driven fluid flow between stacked dies, can provide high heat transfer coefficients directly on the die surfaces, can easily accommodate a wide variety of interconnect schemes, and is scalable to any number of dies. A methodology for the optimization of immersion cooled 3-D stacked dies is presented, including the effects of confinement on natural convection and channel boiling. Optimum die spacings for both single and two phase cooling with saturated FC-72 are found to be on the order of 0.5mm for typical microelectronics geometries and to yield heat densities of 10–50 W/cm3 in natural convection and 100–500 W/cm3 in channel boiling.

Copyright © 2007 by ASME
Topics: Cooling



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