Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >

Utilization of Directional Freezing for the Construction of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

[+] Author Affiliations
Jessica A. Preciado, Prathib Skandakumaran, Boris Rubinsky

University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA

Smadar Cohen

Ben Gurion University, Israel

Paper No. IMECE2003-42067, pp. 439-442; 4 pages
  • ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
  • Heat Transfer, Volume 4
  • Washington, DC, USA, November 15–21, 2003
  • Conference Sponsors: Heat Transfer Division
  • ISBN: 0-7918-3718-1 | eISBN: 0-7918-4663-6, 0-7918-4664-4, 0-7918-4665-2
  • Copyright © 2003 by ASME


Although the field of tissue engineering has advanced significantly in the past decade, the inability to easily produce structured scaffolds continues to hinder its progress. We have proposed a method to create a porous scaffold utilizing directional freezing that is fast, reproducible and can be easily mass produced. Most importantly, this method creates long parallel channels within the scaffold. This should allow cells in the scaffold to grow more easily, and may aid scientists in predicting diffusion rates of nutrients and drugs throughout the scaffold. A cross-linked alginate gel was utilized in a directional freezing apparatus which incorporated a mold based on the horizontal Bridgeman design. The apparatus is designed to allow crystallization to occur in only one direction. The gel was frozen from 0°C to −40°C at a cooling rate of −18.3°C/minute. The samples were then freeze dried (leaving pores where ice dendrites had been), sectioned and viewed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Visual inspection revealed clear directionality present within the scaffolds. SEM photos also showed evenly spaced pores on the order of 100 μm present. A lesser magnification photo showed that the pores extended to become parallel channels producing a structured mesh that resembled an air filter. The directional freezing method is successful when used to create porous tissue engineering scaffolds, especially those with a low amount of tortuosity. By altering the cooling rate, it may be possible to create different pore distributions, thereby producing a method which can be utilized to create directional tissue engineering scaffolds quickly and effectively.

Copyright © 2003 by ASME



Interactive Graphics


Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature

Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal

Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In