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Conversion of Syngas From Biomass in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

[+] Author Affiliations
Jürgen Karl, Nadine Frank, Sotiris Karellas, Mathilde Saule

Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Ulrich Hohenwarter

Technical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

Paper No. FUELCELL2006-97089, pp. 565-571; 7 pages
doi:10.1115/FUELCELL2006-97089
From:
  • ASME 2006 4th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology
  • ASME 2006 Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, Parts A and B
  • Irvine, California, USA, June 19–21, 2006
  • Conference Sponsors: Nanotechnology Institute
  • ISBN: 0-7918-4247-9 | eISBN: 0-7918-3780-7
  • Copyright © 2006 by ASME

abstract

Conversion of biomass in syngas by means of indirect gasification offers the option to improve the economic situation of any fuel cell systems due to lower costs for feedstock and higher power revenues in many European countries. The coupling of an indirect gasification of biomass and residues with highly efficient SOFC systems is therefore a promising technology for reaching economic feasibility of small decentralized combined heat and power production (CHP). The predicted efficiency of common high temperature fuel cell systems with integrated gasification of solid feedstock is usually significantly lower than the efficiency of fuel cells operated with hydrogen or methane. Additional system components like the gasifier, as well as the gas cleaning reduce this efficiency. Hence common fuel cell systems with integrated gasification of biomass will hardly reach electrical efficiencies above 30 percent. An extraordinary efficient combination is achieved in case that the fuel cells waste heat is used in an indirect gasification system. A simple combination of a SOFC and an allothermal gasifier enables then electrical efficiencies above 50%. But this systems requires an innovative cooling concept for the fuel cell stack. Another significant question is the influence of impurities on the fuel cells degradation. The European Research Project ‘BioCellus’ focuses on both questions — the influence of the biogenious syngas on the fuel cells and an innovative cooling concept based on liquid metal heat pipes. First experiments showed that in particular higher hydrocarbons — the so-called tars — do not have an significant influence on the performance of SOFC membranes. The innovative concept of the TopCycle comprises to heat an indirect gasifier with the exhaust heat of the fuel cell by means of liquid metal heat pipes. Internal cooling of the stack and the recirculation of waste heat increases the system efficiency significantly. This concept promises electrical efficiencies of above 50 percent even for small-scale systems without any combined processes.

Copyright © 2006 by ASME

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